Particle fracture in metal-matrix composite friction joints
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The influence of welding parameters, reinforcing particle chemistry and shape, matrix condition and silver interlayers on particle fracture during similar and dissimilar friction welding of aluminium-based metal-matrix composite (MMC) base material was investigated. Two composite base materials were examined, one containing Al2O3 particles and the other containing 72 wt% Al2O3–7 wt % Fe2O3–17 wt % SiO2–3 wt % TiO2 particles. The different material combinations comprised MMC/MMC, MMC/alloy 6061, MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel and MMC/1020 mild steel joints. Particle fracture was confined to a narrow region immediately adjacent to the dissimilar joint interface. The calculated normal pressure for fracture of Al2O3 particles ranges from 0.56–17.58 MPa and is in agreement with an experimentally measured pressure of 1.06 MPa found during sliding wear testing of aluminium-based composite base material. Because the lowest normal pressure applied during friction joining was 30 MPa, particle fracture occurs very early in the joining operation (immediately following contact between the two substrates). The application of a silver interlayer during dissimilar MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel joining decreased the particle fracture tendency. It is suggested that the presence of a silver interlayer decreased the coefficient of friction and lowered the stresses applied at the contact region. The particle fracture tendency was markedly increased when the MMC material contained blocky alumina particles. However, there was negligible particle fracture when the MMC base material contained spherical 72 wt % Al2O3–7 wt % Fe2O3–17 wt % SiO2–3 wt % TiO2 particles.
KeywordsParticle Fracture Friction Welding Joint Interface Slide Wear Testing Friction Pressure
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