Pharmacy World and Science

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 123–130 | Cite as

Genotyping of the arylamine N‐acetyltransferase polymorphism in the prediction of idiosyncratic reactions to trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole in infants.

  • E. Zielińska
  • J. Bodalski
  • K. Mianowska
  • W. Niewiarowski
  • G. Rębowski
  • J. Skrętkowicz
  • M. Sekulska


The pathogenesis of hypersensitivity to trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole (TMP‐SMX) is supposed to be associated with the slow acetylation phenotype. This pharmacogenetic defect is associated with the mutations of the arylamine N‐acetyltransferase (NAT2) encoding gene. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of the acetylation phenotype and NAT2 coding genotype in the prediction of idiosyncratic reaction to Cotrimoxazole in infants. The study was carried out in the group of 20 infants, aged 2‐12 months (mean age 6.3 months) treated with Cotrimoxazole, administered at 100 mg/kg b.w./24 h doses. In seven children (35%) no adverse effects of the treatment have been observed, whereas in 13 (65%) children various adverse effects occurred as a result of the therapy, such as rash (4 children), granulocytopenia with anemization (5 children) or liver impairment (4 children). The acetylation phenotype of each child was determined on the basis of urine of N‐acetyl isoniazid/isoniazid ratio, after ingestion of isoniazid as a model drug. Furthermore we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by the analysis of restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) technique to identify the known mutant alleles of the NAT2 gene. It has been presumed that the genotype determining fast acetylation contains at least one of wild‐type allele. No correlation has been found between the observed adverse effects of Cotrimoxazole and age, gender and acetylation phenotype. However, it has been demonstrated that the risk of adverse effects of Cotrimoxazole is considerably higher in children with mutations of the NAT2 encoding gene. The comparison of the results from PCR‐RFLP genotyping with phenotyping suggested that in infants, the NAT2 genotype rather than phenotype provides the basis for the detection of hypersensitivity to TMP‐SMX.

Acetylation NAT2 genotype Infants Hypersensitivity Trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Zielińska
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Bodalski
    • 3
  • K. Mianowska
    • 3
  • W. Niewiarowski
    • 4
  • G. Rębowski
    • 4
  • J. Skrętkowicz
    • 5
  • M. Sekulska
    • 5
  1. 1.94‐274 Łódź
  2. 2.2nd Clinic of PaediatricsMedical University of ŁódźPoland. Phone
  3. 3.2nd Clinic of PaediatricsMedical University of ŁódźŁódźPoland
  4. 4.The Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular StudiesPolish Academy of ScienceŁódźPoland
  5. 5.The Department of PharmacologyMedical University of ŁódźPoland

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