Efficacy of fish- and hydramethylnon-based baits for conservation of the African weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) during cashew off-seasons in Tanzania
The efficacy of fish- and hydramethylnon-based baits for conservation of the African weaver ant (AWA) Oecophylla longinoda Latreille was evaluated at orchards in Bagamoyo and Mkuranga districts, Coast region of Tanzania, during the cashew offseasons in 2011 and 2012. The baits were applied at monthly intervals; the dynamics of AWA were monitored by counting the number of leaf nests/tree and the colonization trails on main branches. The numbers of leaf nests recorded before baiting ranged between 3.5 and 5.3 and were not significantly different at both sites and in both seasons; after baiting, they ranged between 3.2 and 11.6 at Bagamoyo and between 3.0 and 10.2 at Mkuranga. The colonization of AWA trails recorded before baiting was also not significantly different at both sites and in both seasons and ranged between 37.9 and 50.0%; after baiting, this ranged between 35.9 and 75.1% at Bagamoyo and between 34.6 and 79.2% at Mkuranga. The provision of fish- and hydramethylnon-based baits can effectively contribute to the conservation of AWA during the cashew off-seasons. The fish-based bait is cheaper and more easily affordable by local farmers and can, therefore, be used as an alternative diet for AWA at this time.
Key wordsOecophylla longinoda food source Pheidole megacephala insecticide management abundance colonization
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Lim G. T. (2007) Enhancing the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), for biological control of a shoot borer, Hypsipyla robusta (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in Malaysian mahogany plantations PhD thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA.Google Scholar
- Offenberg J. and Wiwatwitaya D. (2010) Sustainable weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) farming: harvest yields and effects on worker ant density. Asian Myrmecology 3, 55–62.Google Scholar
- Olotu M. L, du Plessis H, Seguni Z. S. and Maniania N. K. (2012) Efficacy of the African weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the control of Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) and Pseudotheraptus wayi (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in cashew crop in Tanzania. Pest Management Science 69, 911–918.doi: 10.1002/ps.3451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Peng R. K. and Christian K. (2006) Effective control of Jarvis’s fruit fly, Bactrocera jarvisi (Diptera: Tephritidae), by the weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in mango orchards in the Northern Territory of Australia. International Journal of Pest Management 52, 275–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Peng R. K., Christian K. and Reilly D. (2009) Green Ants as Biological Control Agents in Agroforestry. RIRDC Publication No. 09/139. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
- Samways M. J. (1981) Comparison of ant community structure (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in citrus orchards under chemical and biological control of red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 71, 663–670. doi:10.1017/S0007485300010191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seguni Z. S. K. (1997) Biology and control of Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Myrmicinae) especially in relation to use of Oecophylla longinoda (Formicidae, Formicinae) for biological control of Pseudotheraptus wayi (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in Tanzanian coconut cropping systems. PhD thesis, Imperial College, London, UK.Google Scholar
- Van Mele P. and Cuc N. T T (2007) Ants as Friends: Improving your Tree Crops with Weaver Ants. 2nd edn. Africa Rice Centre (WARDA)/CABI, Cotonou/Egham. 72 pp.Google Scholar
- Van Mele P. and Van Lenteren J. C. (2002) Survey of current crop management practices in a mixed-ricefield landscape, Mekong Delta, Vietnam - potential of habitat manipulation for improved control of citrus leafminer and citrus red mite. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 88, 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Varela A. M. (1992) Role of Oecophylla longinoda (Formicidae) in control of Pseudotheraptus wayi (Coreidae) on coconut in Tanzania. PhD thesis, Imperial College, London, UK.Google Scholar
- Williams D. F, Lofgren C. S., Banks W. A., Stringer C. E. and Plumley J. K. (1980) Laboratory studies with nine amidinohyrazones, a promising new class of bait toxicants for control of red imported fire ants. Journal of Economic Entomology 73, 798–802. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/73.6.798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zerhusen D. and Rashid M. (1992) Control of the bigheaded ant Pheidole megacephala Mayr. (Hym., Formicidae) with the fire ant bait ‘AMDRO’ and its secondary effect on the population of the African weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hym., Formicidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 113, 258–262. doi:10.1111/j.l439-0418.1992.tb00663.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar