Advertisement

Induction and activity of glutathione S-transferases extracted from Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) exposed to insecticides

  • A. O. AdeyiEmail author
  • G. O. Akozi
  • M. A. Adeleke
  • B. K. O. Agbaogun
  • A. B. Idowu
Article

Abstract

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have been recognized as important metabolic detoxifying enzymes in many phytophagous insects. However, the contribution of GST to insecticide resistance in Zonocerus variegatus (L.) has not been studied. Therefore, we carried out an initial study on the induction and kinetics of GST in Z. variegatus exposed to pyrethroids (PYRs) and Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract. Fifth-instar nymphs of Z. variegatus collected from cassava farms (with no history of insecticide exposure) on the campus of the University of Ibadan were reared to adult stage. Adult insects were divided into four groups of two replicates, each consisting of 30 insects. The groups were exposed to 20 ml of PYR insecticide and 25 mg/dl and 250 mg/dl of O. gratissimum leaf extract, respectively, while the last group served as the control. GST was extracted from the body tissues of the insects using the Bradford method and the kinetics of the enzyme was evaluated using the Lineweaver-Burk plots. No mortality was recorded in insects exposed to 25 mg/dl of O. gratissimum leaf extract, while mortality rates of 93.3 and 43.3% were recorded in insects exposed to PYR insecticide and 250 mg/dl of O. gratissimum leaf extract, respectively. The activity of GST was higher in insects exposed to the insecticides than in the control insects, while a higher enzyme activity was recorded in insects that died after exposure to the insecticides than in insects that were alive after exposure. The GST extracted from insects that were alive after exposure to PYR insecticide and O. gratissimum leaf extract exhibited a high affinity for the glutathione substrate compared with that extracted from insects that died after exposure. Higher GST activity in insects exposed to insecticides is indicative of the role of this enzyme in the metabolic detoxification of insecticides by Z. variegatus.

Key words

Zonocerus variegatus Ocimum gratissimum glutathione S-transferases pyrethroids insecticides resistance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adeniyi S., Orjiekwe C., Ehiagbonare J. and Arimah B. (2010) Preliminary phytochemical analysis and insecticidal activity of ethanolic extracts of four tropical plants (Vernonia amygdalina, Sida acuta, Ocimum gratissimum and Telfairia occidentalis) against beans weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus). International Journal of Physical Sciences 5, 753–762.Google Scholar
  2. Adewale I. O. and Afolayan A. (2006) Studies on glutathione transferase from grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 85, 52–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alao F. O., Adebayo T. A., Olaniran O. A. and Akanbi W. B. (2011) Preliminary evaluation of the insecticidal potential of organic compost extracts against insect pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 1, 123–130.Google Scholar
  4. Bamidele A. O. and Muse W. A. (2012) A morphometric study of the variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (Linn.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) from parts of southern Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science 14, 61–73.Google Scholar
  5. Barrientos-Lozano L. and Almaguer-Sierra P. (2009) Manejo sustentable de chapulines (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) en México. Vedalia 13, 51–56.Google Scholar
  6. Campbell P. M., Yen J. L., Masoumi A., Russell R. J., Batterham P., McKenzie J. A. and Oakeshott J. G. (1998) Cross-resistance patterns among Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) resistant to organopho-sphorus insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology 91, 367–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman R. R., Page W. W. and McCaffery A. R. (1986) Bionomics of the variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus) in West and Central Africa. Annual Review of Entomology 31, 479–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Etang J., Manga L., Toto J. C., Guillet P., Fondjo E. and Chandre E (2007) Spectrum of metabolic-based resistance to DDT and pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon. Journal of Vector Ecology 32, 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Field L. M. and Devonshire A. L. (1998) Evidence that the E4 and FE4 esterase genes responsible for insecticide resistance in the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) are part of a gene family. Biochemistry Journal 330, 169–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Habig W. H., Pabst M. J. and Jakoby W. B. (1974) Glutathione S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 249, 7130–7139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hill D. S. and Waller J. M. (1982) Pests and Diseases of Tropical Crops: Handbook of Pests and Diseases. Longman, New York. 432 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Isman M. B. (2000) Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. Crop Protection 19, 603–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lasisi A. O. and Ajuwon A. J. (2002) Beliefs and perceptions of ear, nose and throat-related conditions among residents of a traditional community in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 31, 45–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Leal P. E., Chaves E. C. M., Ming L. C., Petenate A. J. and Meireles M. A. A. (2006) Global yields, chemical compositions, and antioxidant activities of clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L.) extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction. Journal of Food Process Engineering 29, 547–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Leatemia A. J. and Isman M. B. (2004) Toxicity and antifeedant activity of crude seed extracts of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) against lepidopteran pests and natural enemies. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 24, 150–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lowry O. H., Rosebrough N. J., Lewis Farr A. and Randall R. J. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193, 265–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Modder W. W. D. (1994) Control of the variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (L.) on cassava. African Crop Science Journal 2, 391–406.Google Scholar
  18. Muhammad R., Hu M. Y., Afzal M., Bashir M. H., Liang G. and Jianjun L. (2010) Impact of two medicinal plant extracts on glutathione S-transferase activity in the body issues of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 3971–3979.Google Scholar
  19. Nascimento A. P. and Bicudo H. E. M. C. (2002) Esterase patterns and phylogenetic relationships of Drosophila species in the sultans subgroup (sultans group). Genetica 114, 41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ogueji E. O. (2012) Effects of different feeds on the chromosome behaviour of Zonocerus variegatus. International Journal of Applied Biological Research (IJABR) 1&2, 45–52.Google Scholar
  21. Ojo O. A., Oloyede O. I., Ajiboye B. O. and Olarewaju O. I. (2014) Effects of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum on some haematological parameters of albino rats. American Chemical Science Journal 4, 74–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Okonkwo N. J., Ezeakacha E. N. and Nwankwo E. N. (2011) A study on the feeding and growth patterns of the variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (L.) in the laboratory. African Research Review: An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia 5, 393–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Oku E. E., Arong G. A. and Bassey D. A. (2011) Species composition of grasshoppers (Orthoptera) in open plots and farmlands in Calabar metropolis, southern Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 14, 507–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Qin G., Jia M., Liu T., Xuan T., Yan Zhu K., Guo Y., Ma E. and Zhang J. (2011) Identification and characterisation of ten glutathione S-transferase genes from oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). Pest Management Science 67, 697–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ranson H., Rossiter L., Ortelli E, Jensen B., Wang X., Roth C. W., Collins E. H. and Hemingway J. (2001) Identification of a novel class of insect glutathione S-transferases involved in resistance to DDT in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Biochemical Journal 359, 295–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tang A. H. and Tu C. P. (1995) Pentobarbital-induced changes in Drosophila glutathione S-transferase D21 mRNA stability. Journal of Biological Chemistry 270, 13819–13825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vontas J. G., Small G. J., Nikou D. C., Ranson H. and Hemingway J. (2002) Purification, molecular cloning and heterologous expression of a glutathione-S-transferase involved in insecticide resistance from the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Biochemistry Journal 362, 329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wei S. H., Clark A. G. and Syvanen M. (2001) Identification and cloning of a key insecticide-metabolizing glutathione S-transferase (MdGST-6A) from a hyper insecticide-resistant strain of the housefly Musca domestica. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 31, 1145–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wu M. C. and Lu K. H. (2008) Juvenile hormone induction of glutathione S-transferase activity in the larval fat body of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Achives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 68, 232–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yadwad V. B. and Kallapur V. L. (1988) Induction of glutathione S-transferase in the castor semilooper, Achaea janata (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) following fenitrothion treatment. Journal of Biosciences 13, 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yang Y, Cheng J. Z., Singhal S. S., Saini M., Pandya U., Awasthi S. and Awasthi Y. C. (2001) Role of glutathione S-transferases in protection against lipid peroxidation. Overexpression of hGSTA2-2 in K562 cells protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and inhibits JNK and caspase 3 activation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 19220–19230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zibaee A. (2011) Botanical insecticides and their effects on insect biochemistry and immunity. In Pesticides in the Modern World: Pest Control and Pesticides Exposure and Toxicity Assessment (edited by M. Stoytcheva). Published by InTech, pp. 55–68. doi:10.5772/16550.Google Scholar
  33. Zibaee A., Sendi J., Alinia F., Ghadamyari M. and Etebari K. (2009) Diazinon resistance in different selected strains of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), rice striped stem borer, in the north of Iran. Journal of Economic Entomology 102, 1189–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. O. Adeyi
    • 1
    Email author
  • G. O. Akozi
    • 1
  • M. A. Adeleke
    • 2
  • B. K. O. Agbaogun
    • 3
  • A. B. Idowu
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Zoology University of IbadanAnimal Physiology UnitIbadanNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesOsun State UniversityOsogboNigeria
  3. 3.Analytical Chemistry Unit, Department of ChemistryUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria
  4. 4.Department of Biological SciencesFederal University of AgricultureAbeokutaNigeria

Personalised recommendations