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International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 225–234 | Cite as

Efficacy of Calneem derived from Ghanaian neem seeds and seed oils from two locations in Cameroon against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on maize

  • Elias Nchiwan NukenineEmail author
  • Clergé Tchiegang
  • Adela Andrine Tagne Mekouo
  • Katamssadan Haman Tofel
  • Charles Adarkwah
  • Daniel Obeng-Ofori
  • Cornel Adler
Article

Abstract

Botanical insecticides are among the most promising alternatives to synthetic insecticides for stored product protection. Calneem oil from Ghana and local neem oils from two localities in northern Cameroon (Garoua and Maroua) were tested at 0 (untreated control), 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 ml/kg, on the adult and immature stages of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky), for mortality and reproduction inhibition. The neem oils from Cameroon were extracted using the traditional kneading method and a hydraulic press in the laboratory (refined). Maize grains were coated with the five neem seed oils (Calneem, Garoua traditional and refined, and Maroua traditional and refined, respectively) and adult mortality was recorded at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after exposure. Within 1 day of exposure, the highest tested concentration (12 ml/kg) of Calneem, Garoua traditional, Garoua refined, Maroua traditional and Maroua refined oils caused similar weevil mortality of 86.3, 93.8, 93.8, 97.5 and 97.5%, respectively. The 24-h LC50 values for the oils in the same order were 7.0, 6.0,5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 ml/kg, respectively. The lowest (2 ml/kg) and highest (12 ml/kg) concentrations of the oils suppressed progeny production by over 80 and 98%, respectively. The oils arrested the development of the hidden eggs and immature stages in the maize grains. The results suggested that neem seed oils from different localities of northern Cameroon, irrespective of the method of extraction, were effective for the protection of stored maize against S. zeamais. The promotion of natural neem seed oils as stored grain protectants in Cameroon would boost food security, alleviate poverty and reduce environmental degradation.

Key words

Calneem neem seed oil method of extraction Sitophilus zeamais toxicity F1 progeny 

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Copyright information

© ICIPE 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elias Nchiwan Nukenine
    • 1
    Email author
  • Clergé Tchiegang
    • 2
  • Adela Andrine Tagne Mekouo
    • 1
  • Katamssadan Haman Tofel
    • 1
  • Charles Adarkwah
    • 3
  • Daniel Obeng-Ofori
    • 4
  • Cornel Adler
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of NgaoundereNgaoundereCameroon
  2. 2.University Institute of Technology, University of NgaoundereNgaoundereCameroon
  3. 3.Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Julius Kühn-Institut, Institute for Ecological ChemistryPlant Analysis and Stored Product ProtectionBerlinGermany
  4. 4.Department of Crop Science, School of Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Consumer SciencesUniversity of GhanaAccraGhana

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