Advertisement

Propagation of mycotoxigenic fungi in maize stores by post-harvest insects

  • Yendouban Lamboni
  • Kerstin HellEmail author
Research Paper

Abstract

Maize pests feeding on grains can transmit with their movement fungi harmful to human and animal health. The aim of the present work was to study the immigration and the dynamics of storage pests in traditional African maize granaries and the fungal spectrum associated with these insects. Treatments were (i) maize cobs protected just after pollination with gauze and stored thereafter, and (ii) unprotected maize cobs as controls. Eight different species of insects were identified in stores. No Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) was found in ’protected’ maize during the 6 months of storage, but their mean number reached 239 individuals per kilogram after just 3 months of storage in the ’unprotected’ stores. Similarly, significantly more Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) were recovered from the unprotected than the protected maize treatment. Nine fungal species were found to be associated with the storage insects. On ’non-protected’ cobs the genus Fusarium (36.05%) was the most frequently identified, followed by Penicillium (23.50%), Rhizoctonia (5.65%) and Aspergillus (3.95%). On protected cobs, Rhizoctonia sp. was most frequent (16.76%), followed by Fusarium spp. (16.62%), Penicillium spp. (8.24%) and Aspergillus spp. (2.33%). The toxigenic species encountered were Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus parasiticus Speare and Fusarium verticillioïdes (Sacc). Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin) appeared to carry more fungi towards the store, mainly Penicillium spp. (51.47%), Aspergillus spp. (46.56%) and Fusarium spp. (32.01%). Storage pests, in particular C. quadricollis and S. zeamais, play an important role in the contamination of maize with fungi, especially those that produce toxins.

Key words

maize beetles storage pests toxigenic fungi stores 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ako M., Schulthess F., Gumedzoe M. Y. D. and Cardwell K. F. (2003) The effect of Fusarium verticillioides on oviposition behaviour and bionomics of lepidopteran and coleopteran pests attacking the stem and cobs of maize in West Africa. Entomología Experimentalis et Applicata 106, 201–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beti J. A., Phillips T. W. and Smalley E. B. (1995) Effects of maize weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on pro-duction of aflatoxin B by Aspergillus flavus in stored corn. Journal of Economic Entomology 88, 1517–1838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biliwa A. and Richter J. (1990) Efficacité d’insecticides binaires en poudre sur du maïs égrené, stocké en sacs, pp. 1577–1585. In Advances in Stored Product Protection: Proceedings of the 5th International Working Conference on Stored-Product Protection (edited by F. Fleurat-Lessard and P. Ducom). 9–14 September 1990, Bordeaux, France. Imprimerie du Médoc, Bordeaux.Google Scholar
  4. Borgemeister C., Adda C., Djomamou B., Degbey P., Agboka A., Djossou F., Meikle W. G. and Markham R. H. (1994) The effect of maize cob selection and stored maize losses by the larger grain borer P. truncatus (Horn) (Col.: Bostrychidae) and associated storage pests, pp. 909–919. In Stored Product Protection. Proceedings of the 6th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection II, Canberra, Australia (edited by E. Highley, E. J. Wright, H. J. Banks and B. R. Champ). CAB International, Wallingford.Google Scholar
  5. Boxall R. A. (1986) A Critical Review of the Methodology for Assessing Farm-Level Grain Losses after Harvest. TDRI, London. 139 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Cardwell K. F. and Cotty P. J. (2002) Distribution of Aspergillus section Flavi among field soils from the four agroecological zones of the Republic of Benin, West Africa. Plant Disease 86, 434–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cardwell K. F., Kling J. G., Maziya-Dixon B. and Bosqué-Perez N. A. (2000) Interactions between Fusarium verticillioides, Aspergillus flavus, and insect infestation in four genotypes in lowland Africa. Phytopathology 90, 276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Délobel A. and Tran M. (1993) Les coléoptères des denrées entreposées dans les régions chaudes. CTA/ORSTOM, Paris. 424 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Dobie P., Haines C. P., Hodges R. J., Prevett P. F. and Rees D. P. (1991) Insects and Arachnids of Tropical Stored Products: Their Biology and Identification (A training manual). 2nd edn. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham. 246 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Dowd P. F. (1991) Nitidulids as vectors of mycotoxin-producing fungi, pp. 335–342. In Aflatoxin in Corn. New Perspectives. North Central Regional Research Publication 329 (edited by O. L. Shotwell and C. R. Hurburgh). Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station, Ames, Iowa.Google Scholar
  11. Dowd P. F. (1998) Involvement of arthropods in the establishment of mycotoxigenic fungi under field conditions, pp. 307–350. In Mycotoxin in Agriculture and Food Safety (edited by K. K. Sinha and D. Bhatnagar). Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Fandohan P., Langner B. and Mutlu P. (1992) Distribution, recherche et controle du Grand Capucin du mais Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) au Benin, pp. 18–28. In Implementation of and Further Research on Biological Control of the Larger Grain Borer (edited by J. Boeye, M. Wright and G. A. Laborius). GTZ, Eschborn.Google Scholar
  13. Gaston K. J., Gregory R. D. and Blackburn T. M. (1999) Interspecific relationships between abundance and occupancy among species of Paridae and Sylviidae in Britain. Ecoscience 6, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gwinner J., Harnish R. and Mück O. (1996) Manuel sur la manutention et la conservation des graines après récolte. GTZ, 368 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Hell K. (1997) Factors contributing to the distribution and incidence of aflatoxin producing fungi in stored maize in Benin. PhD Thesis, University of Hannover, Germany. 143 pp.Google Scholar
  16. ISO (1980) Determination of moisture content (on milled grain and whole grain). ISO 6540 180, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  17. King S. B. and Scott G. E. (1981) Genotypic differences in maize to kernel infection by Fusarium moniliforme. Phytopathology 71, 1245–1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Klich M. A. and Pitt J. I. (1998) A laboratory guide to the common Aspergillus species and their teleomorphs. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Division of Food Processing, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia. 116 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Marasas W. F. O. (1988) Medical relevance of mycotoxins in southern Africa. Microbiology Aliments, Nutrition/Microbiology, Food and Nutrition 6, 1–5.Google Scholar
  20. Meikle W. G., Markham R. H., Holst N., Djomamou B., Schneider H. and Vowotor K. A. (1998) Distribution and sampling of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in maize stores in Benin. Journal of Economic Entomology 91, 1366–1374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Miller J. D. (1995) Mycotoxins in Asia: policies for the future. ACIAR Postharvest Newsletter 32, 5–15.Google Scholar
  22. Munkvold G. P. and Carlton W. M. (1997) Influence of inoculation method on systemic Fusarium moniliforme infection of maize plants grown from infected seeds. Plant Disease 81, 211–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pantenius C. U. (1988) Etat des pertes dans les systèmes de stockage du maïs au niveau des petits paysans de la région maritime du Togo. GTZ, Eschborn, Germany. 83 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Pitt J. I. and Hocking A. D. (1999) Fungi and Food Spoilage 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall, Gaithersburg, Maryland. 593 pp.Google Scholar
  25. SAS Institute (2003) SAS User’s Guide: Statistics, version 9.1., 9th edn. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  26. Scholz D., Tchabi A., Borgemeister C., Markham R. H., Poehling H.-M. and Lawson A. (1997) Host-finding behaviour of Prostephanus truncatus: primary attrac-tion or random attack? Journal of Applied Entomology 121, 261–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scholz D., Tchabi A., Markham R. H., Poehling H.-M. and Borgemeister C. (1998) Factors affecting pheromone production and behavioural responses by Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91, 872–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schulthess F., Cardwell K. F. and Gounou S. (2002) The effect of endophytic Fusarium verticillioïdes on infestation of two maize varieties by lepidopterous stemborers and coleopteran grain feeders. Phytopathology 92, 120–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Watanabe T. (1994) Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi. Morphologies of Cultured Fungi and Key to Species. Lewis Publishers, London. 411 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Wright V. F. (1998) Assessment of insect infestation in stored maize and their relationship to Aspergillus flavus contamination. In Mycotoxin Prevention and Control in Food Grains (edited by R. L. Semple, A. S. Frio, P. A. Hicks and J. V. Lozare). UNDP/FAO Regional Network Inter-Country Cooperation on Preharvest Technology and Quality Control of Foodgrains (REGNET) and Asean Grain Post harvest Programme. Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
  31. Wright V. F., Harein P. K. and Collins N. A. (1980) Preference of the confused flour beetle for certain Penicillium isolates. Environmental Entomology 9, 213–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ecole Supérieure d’AgronomieUniversité de LoméLoméTogo
  2. 2.International Institute of Tropical AgricultureCotonouBenin

Personalised recommendations