Larvicidal activity of some essential oils, monoterpenoids and their corresponding N-methyl carbamate derivatives against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • M. A. RadwanEmail author
  • S. R. El-Zemity
  • S. A. Mohamed
  • S. M. Sherby


The larvicidal activity of 13 essential oils, 14 major monoterpenoids and 9 N-methyl carbamates based on these monoterpenoids was tested according to the recommendations of the WHO against fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens L. The results of the larvicidal assays after 24 hr revealed a high potential for the essential oils, such as cinnamon, chenopodium and eucalyptus. Of the monoterpenoids, chlorothymol was found to be the most effective followed by thymol, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde. Conversion of the most active monoterpenoids into their N-methyl carbamate derivatives resulted in higher larvicidal activities than those of the corresponding monoterpenoids. The use of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) to improve the efficacy of the most active monoterpenoids resulted in higher larvicidal activity. Also, all N-methyl carbamate derivatives were synergized by PBO. Carvacrol derivative, which was strongly synergized by PBO, was comparable with the standard synthetic insecticide malathion.

Key words

Culex pipiens essential oils larvicidal activity monoterpenoid carbamate derivatives monoterpenoids piperonyl butoxide 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Carvalho A. F. U., Melo V. M. M., Craveiro A. A., Machado M. I. L., Bantim M. B. and Rabelo E. E (2003) Larvicidal activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides Cham, against Aedes aegypti Linn. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98, 569–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheng S. S., Liu J. Y., Tsai K. H., Chen W. J. and Chang S. T. (2004) Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmopgloeum provenances. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 52, 4395–4400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chevillon C., Bernard C., Marquine M. and Pasteur N. (2001) Resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae): interaction between recessive mutants and evolution in southern France. Journal of Medical Entomology 38, 657–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. El-Sebae A. H., Metcalf R. L. and Fukuto T. R. (1964) Carbamate insecticides: synergism by organothiocya-nates. Journal of Economic Entomology 57, 478–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. El-Zemity S. R. (2006) Synthesis and molluscicidal activity of novel N-methyl carbamate derivatives based on naturally occurring monoterpenoids. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 2, 86–90.Google Scholar
  6. El-Zemity S. R., Mohamed S. A., Radwan M. A. and Sherby S. M. (2001) Molluscicidal activity of some essential oils and their major chemical constituents against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Alexandria Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 15, 167–170.Google Scholar
  7. Farid H. A., Moesy Z. S., Hassan A. N, Hammad R. E., Faris R., Kandil A. M., Ahmed E. S. and Weil G. J. (2000) The impact of environmental and entomological factors on intervillage filarial focality in the Nile Delta. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 30, 469–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Finney D. J. (1971) Probit Analysis. 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 333 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Ghoneim N. J. and Woods G. T. (1983) Rift Valley fever and its epidemiology in Egypt: a review. Journal of Medicine 14, 55–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hayes W. J. and Laws E. R. (1991) Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York, USA. 497 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Hewlett P. S. (1960) Joint action in insecticides, pp. 37–74. In Advances in Pest Control Research, Vol. 3 (Edited by R. L. Metcalf). Academic Press, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  12. Isman M. B. (2000) Plant essential oil for pest and disease management. Crop Protection 19, 603–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lang W. and Feuerhake K. (1984) Increase of the efficacy of riched neem Azadirachta indica seed extracts by the synergist piperonyl butoxide under laboratory conditions. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 98, 368–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McAbee R. D., Kang K. D., Stanich M. A., Christiansen J. A., Wheelock C. E., Inman A. D., Hammock B. D. and Cornel A. J. (2004) Pyrethroid tolerance in Culex pipiens var molestus from Marin County, California. Pest Management Science 60, 359–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mansour S. A., Messeha S. S. and El-Gengaihi S. E. (2000) Botanical biocides—4. Mosquitocidal activity of certain Thymus capitatus constituents. Journal of Natural Toxins 9, 49–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Matsumura F. (1985) Toxicology of Insecticides. Plenum Press, New York and London. 598 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Metcalf R. L. (1967) Mode of action of insecticide synergists. Annals of Research in Entomology 12, 229–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mittal P. K. and Subbarao S. K. (2003) Prospects of using herbal products in the control of mosquito vectors. ICMR Bulletin 33, 1–10.Google Scholar
  19. Paul A., Harrington L. C., Zhang L. and Scott J. G. (2005) Insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens from New York. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 21, 305–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Phadnis A. P., Patwardhan S. A., Gund P. and Sharma R. N. (1987) Biological activity of some new geraniol-based diethers on insect pests and vectors. Pesticide Science 21, 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Radwan M. A. (2001) Molluscicidal potency of some naturally occurring compounds and their blends against schistosomiasis snail vector, Biomphalaria alexandrina. Journal of Pest Control and Environmental Sciences 9, 1–12.Google Scholar
  22. Rice P. J. and Coats J. R. (1994) Insecticidal properties of monoterpenoid derivatives to the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) and red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrio-nidae). Pesticide Science 41, 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sardelis M. R., Turell M. J. and Andre R. G. (2003) Experimental transmission of St Louis encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatus japonicus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19, 159–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Shaalan E., Canyon D. V., Faried M. W., Abdel-Wahab H. and Mansour A. (2005) A review of botanical phytochemicals with mosquitocidal potential. Environment International 31, 1149–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Singh K., Singh A. and Singh D. K. (1998) The use of piperonyl butoxide and MGK-264 to improve the efficacy of some plant-derived molluscicides. Pesticide Science 54, 145–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Smith G. C., Moore C. G., Davis T., Savage H. M., Thapa A. B., Shrestha S. L. and Karabatsos N. (1993) Arbovirus surveillance in northern Colorado, 1987 and 1991. Journal of Medical Entomology 30, 257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sukumar K., Perich M. J. and Boobar L. R. (1991) Botanical derivatives in mosquito control: a review. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 7, 210–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Traboulsi A. F., El-Haj S., Tueni M., Taoubi K., Nader N. A. and Mrad A. (2005) Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae). Pest Management Science 61, 597–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Traboulsi A. F., Taoubi K., El-Haj S., Bessiere J. M. and Rammal S. (2002) Insecticidal properties of essential plant oils against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae). Pest Management Science 58, 491–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tsao R., Lee S., Rice P. J., Jensen C. and Coats J. R. (1995) Monoterpenoids and their synthetic derivatives as leads for new insect-control agents, pp. 312–324. In Synthesis and Chemistry of Agrochemicals IV, ACS Symposium Series No. 584, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, USA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wirth M. C. and Georghiou G. P. (1997) Cross-resistance among Cry IV toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Culex quiquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 90, 1471–1477.Google Scholar
  32. World Health Organization (2005) Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/2005 13, 7–20.Google Scholar
  33. Yang P., Yajun M. and Zheng S. (2005) Adulticidal activity of five essential oils against Culex pipiens quinquefas-ciatus. Journal of Pesticide Science 30, 84–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Radwan
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. R. El-Zemity
    • 1
  • S. A. Mohamed
    • 1
  • S. M. Sherby
    • 1
  1. 1.Pesticide Chemistry Department, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of AlexandriaEgypt

Personalised recommendations