International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 267–272 | Cite as

Spatial Distribution, Pupation Behaviour and Natural Enemies of Cirina Forda Westwood (Lepidoptera: Saturnhdae) Around Its Host, The Sheanut Tree, Vitellaria Paradoxa C. F. Gertn

  • J. A. OdebiyiEmail author
  • A. A. Omoloye
  • S. O. Bada
  • R. O. Awodoyin
  • P. I. Oni
Research Article


The spatial distribution, pupation behaviour and natural enemies of Cirina forda in the soil around its host, the sheanut tree, Vitellaria paradoxa were investigated in the field. Results indicated that final instars pupated within a 6–15 cm depth of soil located within a 90-cm radius around the host tree. Pupal density was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in soils on the north and west axes than on the south and east axes around the host tree. Pupai mortality was significantly higher within the top 5 cm and beyond a 16 cm depth of soil around the host tree. Four fungal pathogens, Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus nigers, A. flaws and Fusarium solani isolated from diseased larvae were implicated in the significantly high larval and pupal mortality that occurred within a 90-cm radius of the host tree trunk. Percentage field parasitism of the eggs by a parasitic wasp Entedon sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophiidae) averaged 18%. Investigation on the potential of these microorganisms for biological control of C. forda is ongoing. An integration of effective biocontrol agent(s) with a slow release insecticide with a penetration depth of 15–20 cm could form part of an integrated management plan for the pest.

Key Words

spatial distribution pupation mortality pathogens egg parasites 


La distribution spatiale, le comportement de nymphose et les ennemis naturels de Cirina forda ont été étudiés au champ dans le sol entourant sa plante hôte Vitellaria paradoxa. Les résultats indiquent que la chenille du dernier stade se nymphose à une profondeur comprise entre 6 et 15 cm dans un rayon de 90 cm autour du tronc. La densité des chrysalides est significativement plus élevée (P < 0.05) dans les quarts nord et ouest que dans les quarts sud et est autour de l’arbre. La mortalité nymphale est significativement plus élevée dans la partie superficielle du sol (< 5 cm) et au delà de 16 cm de profondeur. Quatre champignons pathogènes, Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus nigers, A. flavus et Fusarium solani, isolés de chenilles malades sont impliqués dans la mortalité larvaire et nymphale très élevée observée dans un rayon de 90 cm autour du tronc. Le pourcentage de parasitisme au champ des oeufs par Entedon sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophiidae) est en moyenne de 18%. La possibilité d’utiliser ces organismes à des fins de lutte biologique contre C. forda est actuellement à l’étude. l’utilisation combinée d’agents de lutte biologique efficaces et de traitements insecticides avec une pénétration de 15–20 cm pourrait constituer un projet de lutte intégrée du ravageur.

Mots Clés

distribution spatiale nymphose mortalité pathogènes parasite d’oeufs 


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Copyright information

© ICIPE 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Odebiyi
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. A. Omoloye
    • 1
  • S. O. Bada
    • 2
  • R. O. Awodoyin
    • 1
  • P. I. Oni
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Crop protection and Environmental BiologyUniversity of IbadanNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Forest Resources ManagementUniversity of IbadanNigeria
  3. 3.Forestry Research Institute of NigeriaIbadanNigeria

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