Advertisement

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 605–620 | Cite as

Biodiversity and Habitat Modification in Pest Management

  • H. F. van Emden
  • Z. T. Dabrowski
Article

Abstract

Species diversity of animals and plants is relevant to pest management in very different ways. Plant diversity provides sources of biologically active natural products and of genes for plant resistance. Animal diversity is involved in both harmful and beneficial interactions between crops and weeds or uncultivated land and in provision of potential biological control agents. The pest management implications of changes in biological diversity therefore need to be considered at a smaller scale in the management of cropping systems and on a larger scale in development programmes and national land use planning.

Keywords

conservation ecosystems gene pool genetic diversity biological control wild plants 

Résumé

La diversité des espèces animales et végétales touche à la lutte dirigée de plusieurs façons. La diversité végétale offre des sources de produits naturels biologiquement actifs et de gènes des résistance aux plantes. La diversité animale est impliquée dans les intéractions tant nuisibles que bénéfiques entre cultures et adventices ou terres incultes, et dans la fourniture des agents potentiels de lutte biologique. Les implications de la lutte dirigée concernant des changements dans la diversité biologique par conséquent ont besoin d’être considérées à petite échelle au niveau de la gestion des systèmes culturales et à une plus grande échelle au niveau des programmes de développement et de planification nationale de l’utilisation des terres.

Mots Clés

conservation écosystèmes pool de gènes diversité génétique lutte biologique plantes sauvages 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altieri M.A., van Schoonhoven A. and Doll J. D. (1978) A review of insect prevalence in maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in polycultural systems. Field Crops Res. 1, 33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amoako-Atta B., Omolo E. O. and Kidega E. K. (1983) Influence of maize, cowpea and sorghum intercropping systems on stem-/pod-borer infestations. Insect Sci. Applic. 4, 47–58.Google Scholar
  3. Arthur D. R. (1945) The development of artificially introduced infestations of Aphidius granarius Marsh., under field conditions. Bull, etitomol. Res. 36, 291–295.Google Scholar
  4. Bach C. (1979) Effect of plant density and diversity on the population dynamics of the striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittata. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  5. Batten M. (1983) The rush is on to study jungles. Int. Wildlife 13(3), 16–pp4.Google Scholar
  6. Bock K. R. (1982) Geminivirus diseases of tropical crops. Pl. Disease 66, 266–270.Google Scholar
  7. Burn A. J. (1988a) Assessment of the impact of pesticides on invertebrate predation in cereal crops. Aspects Appl. Biol. 17, 279–288.Google Scholar
  8. Burn A. J. (1988b) Effects of scale on the measurement of pesticide effects on invertebrate predators and parasites. In Field Methods for the Study of Environmental Effects of Pesticides (Edited by Greaves M.P., Greig-Smith P. W. and Smith B. D.), BCPC Monograph no. 40, BCPC, Thornton Heath, pp. 109–117.Google Scholar
  9. Cameron P.J., Powell W. and Loxdale H. D. (1984) Reservoirs for Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), a polyphagous parasitoid of cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Bull. entomol. Res. 74, 647–656.Google Scholar
  10. Chambers R.J., Sunderland K.D., Stacey P. L. and Wyatt I. J. (1982) A survey of cereal aphids and their natural enemies in winter wheat in 1980. Ann. Appl. Biol. 101, 175–178.Google Scholar
  11. Chiverton P. A. and Sotherton N. W. (1991) The effects on beneficial arthropods of the exclusion of herbicides from cereal crop edges. J. Appl. Ecol. 28, 1027–1038.Google Scholar
  12. Coaker T. H. (1987) Cultural methods: The crop. In Integrated Pest Management (Edited by Burn A.J., Coaker T. H. and Jepson P. C), pp. 69–88. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  13. Coaker T. H. and Finch S, (1973) The association of the cabbage rootfly with its food and host plants. In Insect/Plant Relationships (Edited by, van Emden H. F.), pp. 119–128. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  14. Coombes D. S. and Sotherton N. W. (1986) The dispersal and distribution of polyphagous predatory Coleoptera in cereals. Ann. Appl. Biol. 108, 461–474.Google Scholar
  15. Cowgill S.E., Wratten S. D. and Sotherton N. W. (1993) The selective use of floral resources by the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae) on farmland. Ann. Appl. Biol. 122, 223–231.Google Scholar
  16. De Bach P. (1964) Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  17. Dempster J.P. (1969) Some effects of weed control on the numbers of the small cabbage white fly (Pieris rapae L.) on Brussels sprouts. J. Appl. Ecol. 6, 339–345.Google Scholar
  18. Doutt R. L. and Nakata J. (1973) The Rubus leafhopper and its egg parasitoid: An endemic biotic system useful in grape-pest management. Environ. Entomol. 2, 381–386.Google Scholar
  19. Eastop V. F. (1981) The wild hosts of aphid pests. In Pests, Pathogens and Vegetation (Edited by Thresh J. M.), pp. 285–298. Pitman, London.Google Scholar
  20. Edwards C. A. (1968) Effects of direct drilling on the soil flora. Outlook on Agric. 8, 243–244.Google Scholar
  21. Elton CS. (1958) The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  22. Gallun R. L. and Khush G. S. (1980) Genetic factors affecting the expression and stability of resistance. In Breeding Plants Resistant to Insects (Edited by Maxwell F. G. and Jennings P.R.), pp. 63–86. John Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  23. Goldsmith E., Allen R., Allaby M., Davoll J. and Lawrence S. (1972) A blueprint for survival. Introduction: The need for change. Ecologist 2, 2–7.Google Scholar
  24. Hairston N.G., Allan J.D., Colwell R.K., Futuyma D.J., Howell J., Lubin M.D., Mathias J. and Vandermeer J.H. (1968) The relationship between species diversity and stability: An experimental approach with protozoa and bacteria. Ecology 49, 1091–1101.Google Scholar
  25. Hawksworth D. L. (1968) Man’s impact on the British flora and fauna. Outlook on Agric. 8, 23–28.Google Scholar
  26. Hodek I.(1967) Bionomics and ecology of predaceous Coccinellidae. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 12, 79–104.Google Scholar
  27. Hooper M. D. (1984) What are the main recent impacts of agriculture on wildlife? Could they have been predicted, and what can be predicted for die future? In Agricultureand the Environment (Edited by Jenkins D.), pp. 33–36. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  28. Hurd L.E., Mellinger M.V., Wolf L.L. and McNaughton S.J. (1971) Stability and diversity at three trophic levels in terrestrial successional ecosystems. Science 173, 1134–4136.Google Scholar
  29. Jacobson L. A. (1946) The effect of Say stinkbug on wheat. Can. Entomol. 77, 200.Google Scholar
  30. Jones M.G. (1942) The summer hosts of Aphis fabae Scop. Bull, entomol. Res. 33, 161–169.Google Scholar
  31. Judd G. J. R and Borden J. H. (1988) Long-range host-finding behaviour of the onion fly Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): Ecological and physiological constraints. J. Appl. Ecol. 25, 829–845.Google Scholar
  32. Kalashnikov K. Y. (1940) A study upon pests and diseases of agricultural plants in the extreme North [in Russian]. In Summary of the Scientific Research Work of the Institute of Plant Protection for the Year 1939, pp. 49–52. Leningrad Academy of Agricultural Science, Leningrad.Google Scholar
  33. Kanervo V. (1947) Über das Massenauftreten der Gammaeule Phytometra gamma L. (Lep. Noctuidae), im Sommer 1946 in Finnland. Ann. Entomol. Fenn. 13, 89–104.Google Scholar
  34. Khush G. S. (1980) Breeding for multiple disease and insect resistance in rice. In Biology and Breeding for Resistance to Arthropods and Pathogens in Agricultural Plants: Proceedings of an International Short Course in Host Plant Resistance, 22 July–4 August 1979 (Edited by Harris M. K.), pp. 341–354. Texas A and M University, Texas.Google Scholar
  35. Kopvillem H.G. (1960) Nectarplantsfortheattraction of entomophagous insects [in Russian]. Zash. Rast. Vred. Bolez. 5, 33–34.Google Scholar
  36. Kricher J.C. (1973) Summer bird species diversity in relation to secondary succession in the New Jersey Piedmont. Amer. Midl. Nat. 89, 121–137.Google Scholar
  37. Lewis T. (1965a) The effects of shelter on me distribution of insect pests. Sci. Hort. 17, 74–84.Google Scholar
  38. Lewis T. (1965b) Theeffect of an artificial windbreak on the distribution of aphids in a lettuce crop. Ann, Appl. Biol. 55, 513–518.Google Scholar
  39. Lewis T. (1965c) The effects of an artificial windbreak on the aerial distribution of flying insects. Ann. Appl. Biol. 55, 503–512.Google Scholar
  40. MacArthur R. (1955) Fluctuations of animal populations, anda measure of community stability. Ecology 36, 533–536.Google Scholar
  41. Mackauer M. and Way M. J. (1976) Myzus persicae Sulz. an aphid of world importance. In Studies in Biological Control (Edited by Delucchi V. L.), pp. 51–119. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  42. McKinlay R. G. (1985) Effect of undersowing potatoes with grass on potato aphid numbers. Ann. Appl. Biol. 106, 23–29.Google Scholar
  43. Minja E. M. (1990) Management of Chilo spp. infesting cereals in Eastern Africa. Insect Sci. Applic. 11, 489–499.Google Scholar
  44. Murdoch W.W., Evans F.C. and Peterson C. H. (1972) Diversity and patterns in plants and insects. Ecology 53, 819–829.Google Scholar
  45. Neuenschwander P., Hammond W. N. O., Gutierrez A.P., Cudjoe A.R., Adjakloe R., Baumgartner J. U. and Rogev U. (1989) Impact assessment of the biological control of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), by the introduced parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Bull. entomol. Res. 79, 579–594.Google Scholar
  46. O’Donnell M. S. and Coaker T. H. (1975) Potential of intra-crop diversity in the control of brassica pests. Prot. 8th Br. Insectic. Fungic. Conf., Brighton 1975, 101–105.Google Scholar
  47. Ogwaro K. (1983) Intensity levels of stem-borers in maize and sorghum and the effect on yield under different intercropping patterns. Insect Sci. Applic. 4, 33–38.Google Scholar
  48. Omolo E. O. and Seshu Reddy K. V. (1985) Effects of different sorghum-based cropping systems on insect pests in Kenya. Proc. Int. Sorghum Entomol. Workshop, pp. 395–401. ICRISAT, Patancheru, India.Google Scholar
  49. Pimentel D. (1961) Species diversity and insect population outbreaks. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 54, 76–86.Google Scholar
  50. Pollard E. (1967) Studies on the invertebrate fauna of hedges. Ph. D. Thesis. University of Reading, UK.Google Scholar
  51. Pollard E. (1968a) Hedges II. The effect of removal of the bottom flora of a hawthorn hedgerow on the fauna of the hawthorn. J. Appl. Ecol. 5, 109–123.Google Scholar
  52. Pollard E. (1968b) Hedges III. The effect of removal of the bottom flora of a hawthorn hedgerow on the Carabidae of the hedge bottom. J. Appl. Ecol. 5, 125–139.Google Scholar
  53. Pollard E. (1971) Hedges VI. Habitat diversity and crop pests: A study of Brevicoryne brassicae and its syrphid predators. J. Appl. Ecol. 8, 751–780.Google Scholar
  54. Powell W. (1983) The role of parasitoids in limiting cereal aphid populations. In Aphid Antagonists (Edited by Cavalloro R.), pp. 50–56. Balkema, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  55. Powell W. (1986) Enhancing parasite activity in crops. In Insect Parasitoids (Edited by Waage J. and Greathead D.), pp. 319–340. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  56. Powell W., Dean J.G., Dewar A. and Wilding N. (1981) Towards integrated control of cereal aphids. Proc. Br. Crop Prot.Conf., Brighton 1981, 201–206.Google Scholar
  57. Reed W. (1965) Heliothisarmigera (Hb.) (Noctuidae) in western Tanganyika II. Ecology and natural and chemical control. Bull. entomol. Res. 56, 127–140.Google Scholar
  58. Richards J. F. (1984) Global patterns of land conversions. Environment 26(9), 6–13, 34–38.Google Scholar
  59. Risch S.J. (1980) The population dynamics of several herbivorous beetles in a tropical agroecosystem: The effect of intercroppping corn, beans and squash in Costa Rica. J. Appl. Ecol. 17, 593–612.Google Scholar
  60. Risch S.J., Andrew D. and Altieri M. A. (1983) Agroecosystem diversity and pest control data, tentative conclusions and new research directions. Environ. Entomol., 625–629.Google Scholar
  61. Root R. B. (1973) Organisation of a plant-arthropod association in simple and diverse habitats: The fauna of collards (Brassica oleracea) . Ecol. Monogr. 43, 94–125.Google Scholar
  62. Ryan J., Ryan M. F. and McNaeidhe F. (1980) The effect of interrow plant cover on populations of cabbage root fly, Delia brassicae (Wied.). J. Appl. Ecol. 17, 31–40.Google Scholar
  63. Sattauer O. (1989) Genes on deposit: Saving for the future. New Scientist 123, 37–41.Google Scholar
  64. Schilder F. A. and Schilder M. (1928) Die Nahrung der Coccinelliden und ihre Beziehung zur Verwandtschaft der Arten. Arb. Biol. Reichsanst. Land- u. Forstw. Berlin 16, 215–282.Google Scholar
  65. Schneider-Orelli O. (1945) Bienenweide und Schädlingsbekämpfung. Schweiz. Bienenz. 9, 423–429.Google Scholar
  66. Shibang Q. (1983) Biological control of insect pests with indigenous natural enemies in the People’s Republic of China. Abstracts of 10th Int. Congr. Plant Prot. 2, 777 (5A–R5).Google Scholar
  67. Simmonds F. J. (1968) Economics of biological control. PANS 14, 207–215.Google Scholar
  68. Simmonds M. S. J., Evans H. C. and Blaney W. M. (1992) Pesticides for the year 2000: Mycochemicals and botanicals. In Pest Management and the Environment in 2000 (Edited by Kadir A. A. A. S. and Barlow H. S.), pp. 127–164. CABI, Wallingford.Google Scholar
  69. Simmonds N. W. (1979) Principles of Crop Improvement. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  70. Smith J. G. (1976a) Influence of crop background on aphids and other phytophagous insects on Brussels sprouts. Ann. Appl. Biol. 83, 1–13.Google Scholar
  71. Smith J. G (1976b) Influence of crop background on natural enemies of aphids on Brussels sprouts. Ann. Appl. Biol. 83, 15–29.Google Scholar
  72. Sotherton N.W. (1984) The distribution and abundance of predatory arthropods overwintering in farmland. Ann. Appl. Biol. 105, 423–429.Google Scholar
  73. Sotherton N.W., Boatman N. D. and Rands M. R. W. (1989) The ‘Conservation Headland’ experiment in cereal ecosystems. Entomologist 108, 135–143.Google Scholar
  74. Southwood T. R. E. (1962) Migration: An evolutionary necessity for denizensof temporary habitats. Proc. 11 thInt. Congr. Entomol., Vienna, 1960 3, 54–58.Google Scholar
  75. Southwood T. R. E. (1975) The dynamics of insect populations. In Insects, Science and Society (Edited by Pimentel D.), pp. 151–199. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  76. Southwood T. R. E. and Way M. J. (1970) Ecological background to pest management. In Concepts of Pest Management (Edited by Rabb R. L. and Guthrie F. E.), pp. 6–29. North Carolina State University, RaleighGoogle Scholar
  77. Spencer H. (1987) First Principles. Appleton, New York.Google Scholar
  78. Stary P. (1983) The perennial stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) as a reservoir of aphid parasites (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae). Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov. 80, 81–86.Google Scholar
  79. Theunissen J. and den Ouden H. (1980) Effects of intercropping with Spergula arvensis on pests of Brussels sprouts. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 27, 260–268.Google Scholar
  80. Thorpe W.H. and Caudle H.B. (1938) Astudy of the olfactory responses of insect parasites to the food plant of their host. Parasitology 30, 523–528.Google Scholar
  81. Thresh J. M. (1981) The role of weeds and wild plants in the epidemiology of plant virus diseases. In Pests, Pathogens and Vegetation (Edited by Thresh J. M.), pp. 53–70. Pitman, London.Google Scholar
  82. Tischler W. (1950) Überwinterungsverhältnisse der land wirtschaftlichen Schädlinge. Z. Angew. Entomol. 32, 184–194.Google Scholar
  83. Tukahirwa E. M. and Coaker T. H. (1982) Effects of mixed cropping on some insect pests of brassicas: Reduced Brevicoryne brassicae infestations and influences on epigeal predators and the disturbance of ovipositional behaviour in Delia brassicae. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 32, 129–140.Google Scholar
  84. United Nations Environment Programme (1992) Convention onBiological Diversity, 5 June 1992, Mimeograph No. 92-7807. UNEP, Geneva.Google Scholar
  85. Vago C. and Cayrol R. (1955) Une virose à polyèdres de la gamma Plusia gamma L. (Lepidoptera). Ann. Epiphyt. 6, 421–432.Google Scholar
  86. van Emden H. F. (1963a) A preliminary study of insect numbers in field and hedgerow. Entomol. Month. Mag. 98 (1962), 255–259.Google Scholar
  87. van Emden H. F. (1963b) Observations on the effect of flowers on the activity of parasitic Hymenoptera. Entomol. Month. Mag. 98 (1962), 265–270.Google Scholar
  88. Van Emden H. F. (1965a) The role of uncultivated land in the biology of crop pests and beneficial insects. Sci. Hort. 7, 121–136.Google Scholar
  89. van Emden H. F. (1965b) The effect of uncultivated land on the distribution of cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) on an adjacent crop. J. Appl. Ecol. 2, 171–196.Google Scholar
  90. van Emden H. F. (1981) Wild plants in the ecology of insect pests. In Pests, Pathogens and Vegetation (Edited by Thresh J. M.), pp. 251–261. Pitman, London.Google Scholar
  91. van Emden H. F. (1989) Plant diversity and natural enemy efficiency in agro-ecosystems. In Critical Issues in Biological Control (Edited by Mackauer M., Ehler L. E. and Roland J.), pp. 63–80. Intercept, Andover.Google Scholar
  92. van Emden H. F. and Way M. J. (1973) Host plants in the population dynamics of insects. In Insect/ Plant Relationships (Edited by van Emden H. F.), pp. 181–199. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  93. van Emden H. F. and Williams G. (1974) Insect stability and diversity in agro-ecosystems. Anna. Rev. Entomol. 19, 455–475.Google Scholar
  94. Vickerman G. P. (1974) Some effects of grass weed control on the arthropod fauna of cereals. Proc. 12th Br. Weed Contr. Conf., Brighton 1974, 929–939.Google Scholar
  95. Watt K.E.F. (1965) Community stability and the strategy of biological control. Can. Entomol. 97, 887–895.Google Scholar
  96. Way M.J., Cammell M.E., Alford D.V., Gould H.J., Graham C.W., Lane A., Light W. I. G. Sr., Rayner J.M., Hathcoste G.D., Fletcher K. E. and Seal K. (1977) Use of forecasting in chemical control of black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop. on spring-sown field beans. Pl. Path. 26, 1–7.Google Scholar
  97. Williams C. B. (1964) Patterns in the Balance of Nature. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  98. Wolcott G. N. (1942) The requirements of parasites for more than hosts. Science 96, 317–318.Google Scholar
  99. Wratten S.D., van Emden H. F. and Thomas M. B. (1996) Within-field and border refugia for the enhancement of natural enemies. In Enhancing Biological Control of Arthropod Pests through Habitat Management (Edited by Pickett C. and Bugg R. L.). AG Access Corporation, California (in press).Google Scholar
  100. Young M. T. and Garrison G. L. (1949) Aphid collections at Tallulah, Louisiana, from 1941 to 1947. J. econ. Entomol. 42, 993–994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. F. van Emden
    • 1
  • Z. T. Dabrowski
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Plant SciencesThe University of ReadingBerkshireUK
  2. 2.The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE)NairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations