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Tick Infestation of Livestock and Tick Control Methods in Brazil: A Situation Report

  • David E. Evans
Field Situation Report

Abstract

Boophilus microplus is Brazil’s outstanding livestock ectoparasitic pest (annual losses, US$ 1B), affecting, to varying extents, all its States, with a national herd of some 130 M cattle. The country’s 8.5 M sq km and 23,000 km of land frontier with 10 tick infested countries complicate any concepts of national campaigns. Whereas Brazil is increasingly climatically suitable for B. microplus from south (three generations annually) to central (four) to north (potentially up to five), direct problems caused are incidentally decreased due to greater use of Bos indicus cattle at lower stocking rates; five tick population survival mechanisms are suggested. Voluntary, empirical chemical tick control remains the tradition, with little government involvement. Formamidine and synthetic pyrethroid acaricides dominate the market, due to former tick resistance to arsenicals, organochlorines and organophosphates, and market forces. Plunge dips, various sprayers, and “pour-on” formulations are used; first suspicions of tick resistance to synthetic pyrethroids have been reported. Various ecologically based “improved” tick control schemes produced promising results experimentally, but require a complementary vaccine against babesiosis/anaplasmosis before wide recommendation. Intensive use of synthetic pyrethroid acaricides has created tick-borne diseases and heightened demand for a live, frozen “vaccine”, in its pre-commercialization phase in Brazil. A strategic research and development approach has been adopted for widespread improvement to cattle ticks and tick-borne disease control in Brazil.

Key Words

Cattle tick tick control Boophilus microplus Brazil acaricide groups acaricide resistance ecological studies Babesia Anaplasma “vaccine” computer models systems analysis 

Résumé

Boophilus microplus est l’ectoparasite predominant nuisible aux bovines du Brésil (pertes, US$ 1B annuellement). Il affecte, à différents degrés, tous les Etats de la nation, qui ont un total de 130 M de bovins. Le Brésil a 8,5 M km2 et 23,000 km de terre frontière avec 10 pays infestés de B. microplus; ce qui complique les concepts des campagnes nationales. Du point de vue climatique, le Brésil devient de plus en plus approprié pour B. microplus, de la zone sud (3 générations annuellement) jusqu’à la zone central (4) et au nord (avec un potentiel de jusqu’à 5); 5 mechanisms pour preserver les populations du tique au Brésil sont suggéres. En pratique pourtant, les problèmes directs du tique sont diminués accidentelement vers cettes directions, qui accompagnent l’utilisation de plus en plus du Bos indicus et moins de bétail sur les patûrages. L’utilisation volontaire de contrôle empirique du tique qui employe les produits chimiques continue a être la tradition brasiliènne; la participation du gouvernement est minimale. Les acaricides faits de formamidines et de pyrethroides synthétiques sont prédominants, à cause de la résistance du tique aux produits d’arsénic, des organochloriques et des organophosphoriques, et aussi de la publicité. Les bains d’emmersion, divers pulverisateurs, et les formulations “pour-oh” sont employés. Les premiers soupcons de la résistance du tique aux produits de pyrethroides synthétiques ont été preséntés. Divers plans pour améliorer le contrôle du tique, basés sur l’écologie, ont produit des résultats prométeurs; cependant un vaccin contre la babesiose/anaplasmose de bovins est nécéssaire avant d’être généralement recommander. L’utilisation intensive des produits de pyrethroides synthétiques a crée des maladies transmises par le tique et a augmenté la demande pour un vaccin vivant et congelé, qui au Brésil est dans la phase de précommercialisation. Une méthode stratégique de recherche et développement a été adopté pour améliorer largement le control du tique et les maladies transmises par lui au Brésil.

Mots Clés

Le tique des bovins le contrôle du tique Boophilus microplus Brésil les catégories chimiques la resistance chimique les études écologiques Babesia Anaplasma “vaccin” les modèles de computateur l’analyse des systèmes 

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Copyright information

© ICIPE 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • David E. Evans
    • 1
  1. 1.Embrapa-CNPGLCoronel PachecoBrazil

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