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Anatomical and Biochemical Parameters of Resistance of the Wild Cowpea, Vigna Vexillata Benth (Acc. TVNu 72) To Maruca Testulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

  • S. Oghiakhe
  • L. E. N. Jackai
  • C. J. Hodgson
  • Q. N. Ng
Research Article

Abstract

The anatomical and biochemical basis of resistance of Vigna vexillata (Benth) (Acc. TVNu 72) to Monica testulalis were investigated. An uncharacteristic network of fibrous structures was observed on the petal surface of TVNu 72 but not on those of the susceptible control, IT82D-716. Stems of TVNu 72 and IT82D-716 have thick and closely packed collenchyma cells. Both varieties have been identified as possessing resistance to stem feeding; however, IT82D-716 is susceptible to flower and pod damage. The distance between pod wall epicarp and mesocarp was significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in IT82D-716, but cell and tissue arrangement were similar for both varieties.

Total sugar content in the pod wall and seed of TVNu 72 was higher (P < 0.05) than in IT82D-716. Phenol content was lower (P < 0.05) in the pod wall of TVNu 72 but the reverse was true for fresh and dry seeds. This suggests that neither phenol nor total sugar are involved in the resistance of TVNu 72 to M. testulalis. However, it seems that thick and compact collenchyma cells in the stems and Fibrous tissues on the petal surface contribute to the resistance in TVNu 72. The results are discussed in line with previous reports which indicate that trichomes are the principal factors in the resistance of TVNu 72 to M. testulalis.

Key Words

Wild cowpea (Vigna vexillataMaruca testulalis resistance anatomical biochemical 

Résumé

Les bases anatomiques et biochimiques de la résistance de Vigna vexillata (Benth) (Acc. TVNu 72) à Maruca testulalis ont été déterminées. Un réseau caractéristique de structures fibreuses a été observé à la surface des pétales de TVNu 72 alors que les pétales de la variété-témoin IT82D-716 sensible n’en ont pas. Les tiges de TVNu 72 et d’IT82D-716 posssèdent des cellules collenchymateuses épaissses et très serrées. Ces deux variétés ont été identifiées comme étant résistantes aux insectes des tiges. Cependant, les fleurs et les gousses de IT82D-716 sont susceptibles aux dégâts. En ce qui concerne la paroi de la gousse, la distance qui sépare l’épicarpe de la mésocarpe est particulièrement réduite (P < 0.05) dans IT82D-716, mais la disposition des tissus et des cellules était la même pour toutes les variétés.

La teneur totale en sucres dans la paroi de la gousse et dans la graine de TVNu 72 était supérieure et diffèrait de façon significative (P < 0.05) des valeurs mesurées sur IT82D-716. La teneur en phénol de la paroi de la gousse de TVNu 72 était inférieure (P < 0.05) à celle d’IT82D-716; toutefois les valeurs sont inversées pour les graines fraîches et sèches. Ceci suggerè que ni le phénol ni les sucres n’étalent impliqués dans la résistance de TVNu 72 au M. testulalis. Cependant, il semble que les cellules épaises et compactes du collenchyme des tiges et les tissus fibreux de la surface de la pétale contribuent à la résistance de TVNu 72. Les résultats sont discutés avec les rapports antérieurs qui indiquent que les trichomes sont les principaux facteurs de résistance de TVNu 72 à M. testulalis.

Mots Clés

Niebé sauvage Vigna vexillata Maruca testulalis résistance anatomique biochimique 

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Copyright information

© ICIPE 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Oghiakhe
    • 1
  • L. E. N. Jackai
    • 2
  • C. J. Hodgson
    • 1
  • Q. N. Ng
    • 2
  1. 1.Biochemistry and Biological Sciences Department, Wye CollegeUniversity of LondonAshford, KentEngland
  2. 2.International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)IbadanNigeria

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