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Expression and Quantification of Degrees of Resistance by Rabbits to Infestation with Rhipicephalus Sanguineus (L), Dermacentor Variabilis (Say) and Amblyomma Maculatum Koch, (Acari, Ixodidae)

  • Olusegun O. Dipeolu
Research Article

Abstract

Several experiments were conducted with Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma maculatum during which degrees of resistance by rabbits to infestation were quantified. Manifestations of resistance were measured through estimations of “Decreased Tick-Weight Index”, “Decreased Engorgement Period Index” and “Reject Index”. Degree of resistance was evaluated through estimation of Tick Resistance Index. The degree of resistance of rabbits to infestation with each of the three tick species was found to increase with the number of reinfestations. Fully engorged ticks induce the same degree of resistance as partially engorged ones. Nymphal ticks induced higher resistance than larvae, but the resistance conferred by both immature stages was lower than that conferred by adults; previous exposure of rabbits to adults enhanced the degree of resistance against subsequent nymphal or larval infestation. There was cross-resistance between A. maculatum, D. variabilis and R. sanguineus. Resistance induced in rabbits waned with time; rabbits became non-resistant to ticks 12 weeks after the last infestation. Resistance to tick infestation was transferred to rabbits through passive transference of serum from resistant animals. The importance of these observations to the epidemiology of field infestation of animals with ticks is discussed.

Keywords

Ticks resistance engorgement weight engorgement period Rhipicephalus sanguineus Dermacentor variabilis Amblyomma maculatum 

Résumé

Plusieurs experiences ont été conduits pour quantifier les degréesde resistance des lapins aux infestations de Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor variabilis et Amhlyomma maculatum. Les manifestations des résistance fu mesuré par les estimations d’ “Indexe de poid Perdu”, d’ “Indexe de Periode Réduite d’Egorgement” et d’ “Indexe e Rejet”. Le degrée de résistance fu évalue par l’estimation de l’ “Indexe de Resistance aux Tiques”. Le degré de résistance des lapins aux infestations des trois éspéersde tiques augmentait avec l’incidence de re-infestation. Les tiques completement egorgées produisaient le m⨼e degrée de résistance que les tiques partiellement égorgée. Les nymphs produisaient une résistance plus forte que celle produite par les larves, mais la résistance produite par les deux stades immature, été moins forte que celle produite par les adultes; les lapins infestés d’abord avec des adultes avaient plus de résistance aux infestations subsequents de larves et de nymphs. Chaque espèce de tique (R. sanguineus, D. variabilis et A. maculatum) produisait une résistance aux autres éspéces de tiques. La résistance des lapins aux tiques devenait moins forte avec le passage du temps: les lapins n’avaient plus de résistance 12 semaines aprés la dernière infestation. La résistance aux tiques pouvait ðre transfèrè aux lapins par une injection de serum de lapin résistant. L’importance des ces observations a i’epidemilogie d’infestation des animais au terrain est consideré.

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Copyright information

© ICIPE-ICIPE Science Press 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olusegun O. Dipeolu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department ofPathology and ParasitologySchool of Veterinary Medicine, Tuskegec UniversityAlabamaUSA

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