Advertisement

Factors of Resistance in Sorghum Against Sitotroga Cerealella (Oliv.) and sitophilus Oryzae (L.)

  • Lawrence E. Wongo
Research Article

Abstract

The structural components and physical characteristics of sorghum kernels were studied as factors of resistance against Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Specifically, the effects of kernel glumes, weight, size and hardness on larval entry site, oviposition site, emergence site, progeny production, and kernel damage and weight loss, were investigated. The larvae of S. cerealella entered kernels primarily in the germ end and its periphery. Females of S. oryzae oviposited eggsmainly in the endosperm portion of kernels. Larval entry into kernels, and subsequent development of S. cerealella was enhanced in kernels that were enclosed by glumes. In addition, S. cerealella caused greater damage and weight loss in kernels with glumes. In contrast, kernels with glumes yielded less adult progeny of S. oryzae, and sustained less kernel damage and weight loss. The emergence holes of S. cerealella were located mainly in the crown end, whereas those of S. oryzae were mostly in the endosperm portion of kernels. The heavier and larger kernels produced heavier and larger adult progeny of both species of insect.

Key Words

Sorghum resistance stored-grain insects glumes germ endosperm kernel hardness 

Résumé

Les composants de structure et les caractéristiques physiques des grains de sorgho étaient étud ies comme facteurs de résistance contre Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) et Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Spécifiquement, on a examiné les effets des glumesdu grain, du poids du grain, de la grandeur du grain et de sa dureté sur l’endroit d’entrée de la larve, de l’endroit de la ponte, de l’opercule de sortie, de la production de progéniture, des dég↦s au grain et du perte de poids du grain. Les larves de S. cerealella sont entrées dans les grains surtout près du germe et sa périphérie. Les femelles de S. oryzae ont pondu les oeufs surtout près de l’endosperme des grains. L’entrée des larves dans les grains et le développement ultérieur de S. cerealella étaient améliorés dans les grains renfermés dansdes glumes. En outre, S. cerealella a provoqué des dég↦s et despertes de poids plus importants dans les grains avec glumes. Par contraste, les grains avec glumes donnaient moins de progénitures adultes de S. oryzae, et ont subi moins de dég↦s et de perte de poids. Les opercules de S. cerealella se trouvaient surtout au sommet du grain, tandis que celles de S. oryzae se trouvaient dans l’endosperme des grains. Les grains plus lourds et plus grands ont produit des adultes plus lourds et plus grands dans les deux especes d’insectes.

Mots Cléfs

Sorgho resistance insectes de grains stockes glumes germe endosperme durete des grains 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Boles, H. P. and Pomeranz, Y. (1979) Protective effect of barley hulls against the rice weevil. J. econ. Entomol. 72: 87–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Breese, M. H. (1964) Factors governing the infestibility of paddy and rice. Trop. Stored Prod. Inf. 8: 289–299.Google Scholar
  3. Davey, P. M. (1965) The susceptibility of sorghum to attack by the weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Bull. entomol. Res. 56: 287–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dobie, P. (1974) The laboratory assessment of the inherent susceptibility of maize varieties to postharvest infestation by Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 10: 183–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dobie, P. (1984) Biological methods for integrated control of insects and mites in tropical stored products. I: The use of resistant varieties. Trop. Stored Prod. Inf. 48: 4–8.Google Scholar
  6. Doggett, H. (1957) The breeding of sorghum in East Africa. I. Weevil resistance in sorghum grains. Emp. J. Exp. Agric. 25: 1–9.Google Scholar
  7. Eden, W. G. (1952) Effect of kernel characteristics and components of husk cover on rice weevil damage to corn. J. econ. Entomol. 45: 1084–1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ewer, R. F. (1945) The effect of grain size on the oviposition of Calandra granaria Linn. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 20: 57–63.Google Scholar
  9. Fadelmula, A. and Horber, E. (1983) Resistance of sorghum varieties to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.). Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Stored Prod. Entomol., Manhattan, Kansas, USA, Sept. 26–28, pp. 418–434.Google Scholar
  10. Gomez, L. A., Rodriguez, J. G., Poneleit, C. G. and Blake, D. F. (1983) Relationship between some charactersitics of the corn kernel pericarp and resistance to the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. econ. Entomol. 76: 797–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Halstead D. G. H. (1963) External sex differences in stored-product Coleoptera. Bull. entomol. Res. 54: 119–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Khare, B. P. and Mills, R. B. (1968) Development of Angoumois grain moths in kernels of wheat, sorghum and corn as affected by site of feeding. J. econ. Entomol. 68: 450–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kossou, K. D. (1981) Factors affecting the storage of pearl millet, Pennisetun americanum (L.) Leeke. Ph.D. Dissertation, Kansas State University, USA.Google Scholar
  14. Maceljski, M. and Korunic, Z. (1971) Additional contribution to the study of the morphology of the corn weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.). Zast. Bilja 22: 33–44.Google Scholar
  15. Mills, R. B. (1965a) Apparatus for studying feeding andoviposition of Angoumois grain mothadults. J. econ. Entomol. 58, 117.Google Scholar
  16. Mills, R. B. (1965b) Laboratory studies of the biology and behaviour of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.). Ph.D. Dissertation, Kansas State University, Manhattan.Google Scholar
  17. Mills, R. B. (1965c) Early germ feeding and larval development of the Angoumois grain moth. J. econ. Entomol. 58: 220–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Milner, M. D., Barney, D. L. and Shellenberger, J. A. (1950) Use of selective fluorescent stains to detect eggplugs on grain kernel. Science 112: 791–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Reddy, D. B. (1950) Influence of sound kernels compared with halved kernels of wheat upon oviposition of the rice weevil. J. econ. Entomol. 43: 390–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Richards, O. W. (1944) The two strains of the rice weevil, Calandra oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London. (A) 94: 187–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Richards, O. W. (1948) The interaction of environmental and genetic factors in determining the weight of grain weevils, Calandra granaria (L.) (Col., Curculionidae). Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 118: 49–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rogers, R. R. and Mills R. B. (1974) Evaluation of a world sorghum collection for resistance to the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 47: 36–41.Google Scholar
  23. Rooney, L. W. (1973) A review of the physical properties, composition and structure of sorghum grain as related to utilization. In Industrial Uses of Cereals (Edited by Pomeranz Y.), pp. 316–339. Am. Assoc. Cereal, Chem., St. Paul, Minn.Google Scholar
  24. Rooney, L. W. and Sullins, R. D. (1976) The structure of sorghum and its relation to processing and nutritional value. In Sorghum and Millets for Human Food (Edited by Dendy D. A. V.), pp. 91–119. Tropical Products Institute, London.Google Scholar
  25. Rout, G. (1973) Studies of resistance of sorghum to Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.), and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Ph.D. Dissertation. Kansas State University, Manhattan.Google Scholar
  26. Russell, M. P. (1962) Effects of sorghum varieties on the lesser rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). I. Oviposition, immature mortality and size of adults. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 55: 678–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Russell, M. P. (1966) Effects of four sorghum varieties on the longevity of the lesser rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). J. Stored Prod. Res. 2: 75–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. SAS (1985) SAS User’s Guide: Statistics, Version 5 Edition. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  29. Sharifi, S. (1972) Oviposition site and eggplug staining as related to development of two species of Sitophilus in wheat kernels. Z. Angew. Entomol. 71: 428–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shazali M. E. H. (1982) The biology and population ecology of four insect pests of stored sorghum with particular reference to competition and succession. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Reading, U.K.Google Scholar
  31. Shazali M. E. H. (1987) Weight loss caused by development of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) in sorghum grains of two size classes. J. Stored Prod. Res. 23: 233–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. (1980) Statistical Methods. 7th edition. The Iowa State University Press, Ames.Google Scholar
  33. Surtees, G. (1964) Site of damage to whole wheat grains of stored-products beetle. Entomol. Mon. Mag. 99, 178–181.Google Scholar
  34. Surtees, G. (1965) Effect of grain size on developmentof the weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. London (A) 40: 38–40.Google Scholar
  35. Tipping, P. W., Rodriguez, J. G., Poneleit, G. C. and Legg, D. L. (1986) Feeding activity of Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on resistant and susceptible corn genotypes. Environ. Entomol. 16: 654–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tyagi, A. K. and Girish, G. K. (1972) Studies on oviposition site of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) on wheat and effect of size and outer surface. Bull. Grain Technol. 13: 144–150.Google Scholar
  37. Warren, L. O. (1954) The Angoumois grain moth and its behaviour when reared on strains or varieties of the same host species. Ph.D. Dissertation, Kansas State University, Manhattan.Google Scholar
  38. White, S. C. (1975) Laboratory studies of levels and causes of insect resistance in varieties of stored sorghum. M. Sc. Thesis, Kansas State University, Manhattan.Google Scholar
  39. Wongo, L. E. and Pedersen, J. R. (1988) Influence of sorghum storage form on development and progeny of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Contribution No. 88-447-J, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Kansas State University, Manhattan.Google Scholar
  40. Urrelo, R. (1989) Influence of susceptible and resistant maize accessions on the development of Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with initial feeding in specific kernel area. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 62: 32–43.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE-ICIPE Science Press 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence E. Wongo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Grain Science and IndustryKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA

Personalised recommendations