Advertisement

New Strategies for Quality Assessment and Control of Insects Produced in Artificial Rearing Systems

  • J. P. R. Ochieng’-Odero
Research Article

Abstract

Quality assessment and control of artificially reared insects has been traditionally linked to how well the insects perform in their “intended role” or their “fitness for use”. This paper suggests that quality should be defined more in terms of success in survival and colonizing ability. It is argued that the rearing facility should be regarded as an “ecological habitat”. Differences between wild and artificially reared insect populations are therefore due to the different effects and demands placed on the insects by the two habitats. Assessment of quality and its subsequent control should be based on biological parameters that are constant in the two habitats like the larval critical weight (Lcw).

Key Words

Colonization larval critical weight metamorphosis quality rearing review 

Résumé

L’évaluation de la qualité et le control des insectes artificiellement élèves ont été souvent liés à la performance de ceux-ci, dans leur “rℓe habituel” ou leur aptitude lorsqu’ils sont utilises. Cet article suggère que la qualité devrait se définir plus en terme de succès dans l’habileté à survivre et à coloniser. Il est discuté que les facilités d’élevage devraient ðre considérées comme “habitat ecologique”. Les differences entre les populations d’insectes artificiciellement élévees d’une part, et celles trouvées dans la nature d’autres parts, sont ainsi dues aux effets et pressions exercés sur les insectes dans les deux habitats. L’évaluation de la qualité et son control ulterieur devraientðre basés sur des paramètres biologiques tel que le poids critiques larvaire (Lcw).

Mots Cléfs

Colonisation poids critique larvaire metamorphose qualité élevage revision 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agee, H. R. (1977) Instrumentation and techniques for measuring the quality of insect vision using the electroretinogram. U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. ARSS Ser. 162.Google Scholar
  2. Agee, H. (1986) Laboratory-reared boll weevils (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) are visually impaired. J. econ. Entomol. 79: 900–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-izzi A. J. M., Maliky, S. A. and Jabbo, N. F. (1987) Culturing the Carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on an artificial diet. J. econ. Entomol. 80: 277–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alley, D. A. and Hightower, B. G. (1966) Mating behaviour of the screw-worm fly as affected by differences in strain and size. J. econ. Entomol. 59: 1499–1502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartlett, A. C. (1984) Genetic changes during insect domestication. In Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing (Edited by King, E. G. and Leppla N. C.), pp. 2–8. U. S. Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS) Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Bartlett, A. C. (1985) Guidelines for genetic diversity in laboratory colony establishment and maintainance. In Handbook of Insect Rearing (Edited by Singh, P. and Moore R. F.), Vol. I, pp. 7–17. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  7. Bhaskaran, G., Jones, G. and Jones, D. (1980) Neuroendocrine regulation of corpus allatum activity in Manduca sexta: Sequential neurohormonal and nervous inhibition in the last-instar larva. Proc. Natl. A cad. Sci. USA 77: 4407–4411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boller, E. F. (1972) Behavioral aspects of mass-rearing of insects. Entomophaga 17: 9–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boller, E. F. (1979) Behavioral aspects of quality in insectary production. In Genetics in Relation to Insect Management (Edited by Hoy, M. A. and MacKelvey J. J.), pp. 153–160. Rockefeller Foundation.Google Scholar
  10. Boller, E. F. and Chambers, D. L. (1977a) Quality aspects of mass-reared insects. In Biological Control by Augmentation of Natural Enemies (Edited by Ridway, R. L. and Vinson S. B.), pp. 219–235. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boller, E. F. and Chambers, D. L. (Editors) (1977b) A Quality Control: An Idea Book or Fruit Fly Workers. Bull. SROP, WPRS.Google Scholar
  12. Boller, E. F., Katsoyannos, B. S., Remund, U. and Chambers, D. L. (1981) Measuring, monitoring and improving the quality of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata Wied.: 1. The RAPID quality control system for early warning. Z. Angew. Entomol. 92: 67–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brewer, F. D. (1983) Evaluation of selected parameters as quality control criteria for mass producing a tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 76: 339–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bush, G. L. (1979) Ecological genetics and quality control. In Genetics in Relation to Insect Management (Edited by Hoy, M. A. and MacKelvey J. J.), pp. 145–152. Rockefeller Foundation.Google Scholar
  15. Bush, G. L. and Neck, R. W. (1976) Ecological genetics of the screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and its bearing on the quality control of mass-reared insects. Environ. Entomol. 5: 821–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chambers, D. L. (1975) Quality in mass-produced insects. In Controlling fruit flies—The Sterile Insect Technique, IAEA, Vienna, pp. 19–32.Google Scholar
  17. Chambers, D. L. (1977) Quality control in mass rearing. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 22: 289–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chambers, D. L. (1980) Review: SIRM with special reference to quality control. Proc. of Symposium on Fruit Fly Problems, Nat. Inst. Agric. Sci. pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  19. Chambers, D. L. and Ashley, T. R. (1984) Putting the control in quality control in insect rearing. In Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing (Edited by King, E. G. and Leppla N. C.), pp. 256–260. U. S. Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS) Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Curtis, C. F. (1985) Genetic control of insect pests: Growth industry or lead balloon? Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 26: 359–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dobzhansky, T. (1970) Genetics of the Evolutionary Process. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Futuyma, D. J. (1984) Evolutionary Biology. 2nd Edition. Sinauser Assoc, Sunderland, Mass. USA.Google Scholar
  23. Fisher, W. R. (1983) Quality Control of Mass-reared Lepidoptera using the Fall Armyworm, Spodopterafrugiperda (J. E. Smith), as a model. Ph. D. thesis. University of Florida.Google Scholar
  24. Gilbert, L. I., Bollenbacher, W. E., Goodman, W., Smith, S. L., Agui, N., Granger, N. and Sedlak, B. J. (1980) Hormones controlling insect metamorphosis. In Recent Progress in Hormone Research (Edited by Monder, C. and Bradlow H. L.), Vol. 36, pp. 401–449. Academic Press.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gunn, A. and Gatehouse, A. G. (1986) The effect of adult feeding on lipid and protein reserves in African army worm, Spodoptera exempta, moths before and during reproduction. Physiol. Entomol. 11: 423–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hooper G. H. S. (1987) Effect of pupation environment on the quality of pupae and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 44: 155–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Huettel, M. D. (1976) Monitoring the quality of laboratory-reared insects: A biological and behavioural perspective. Environ. Entomol. 5: 807–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hughes, R. D., Jones, R. E. and Gutierrez, A. P. (1984) Short term patterns of population change: The life system approach to study. In Ecological Entomology (Edited by Huffaker, C. B. and Rabb R. L.), pp. 309–357. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Jones, D., Jones, G. and Hammock, B. D. (1981) Growth parameters associated with endocrine events in larval Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) and timing of these events with developmental markers. J. Insect Physiol. 27: 779–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Joslyn, D. J. (1984) Maintainance of genetic variability in reared insects. In Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing (Edited by King, E. G. and Leppla N. C.), pp. 20–29. U. S. Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS) Publishers.Google Scholar
  31. Knipling, E. G. (1966) Introduction. In Insect Colonisation and Mass Production (Edited by Smith C. N.), pp. 1–12. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Knipling, E. F. (1984) What colonisation of insects means to research and pest management. In Advances and Challenges in Insect Rearing (Edited by King, E. G. and Leppla N. C.), pp. ix–xi. U. S. Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS) Publishers.Google Scholar
  33. van Lenteren, J. C. (1986) Parasitoids in the greenhouse: Success with seasonal inoculative release systems. In Insect Parasitoids (Edited by Waage, J. and Greathead D.), pp. 341–374. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  34. Leppla N. C., Huettel, M. D., Chambers, D. L. and Turner, W. K. (1976) Comparative life history and respiratory activity of “wild” and colonised carribbean fruit flies (Dipt.: Tephritidae). Entomophaga 21: 353–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leppla, N. C., Guy, R. H., Chambers, D. L. and Workman, R. B. (1980) Laboratory colonisation of a noctuid moth. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 73: 568–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Leppla N. C., Huettel, M. D., Chambers, D. L., Ashley, T. R., Miyashita D.H., Wong T. T. Y. and Harris, E. J. (1983) Strategies for the colonisation and maintainance of the mediterranean fruit fly. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 33: 89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Loukas, M., Economopoulos, A. P., Zouros, E. and Vergini, Y. (1985) Genetic changes in artificially reared colonies of the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 78: 159–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mason, L. J., Pashley, D. P. and Johnson S.J. (1987) The laboratory as an altered habitat: Phenotypic and genetic consequences of colonisation. Florida Entomol. 70: 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mayr, E. (1963) Animal Species and Evolution. Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moore, R. F., Odell, T. M. and Calkins, C. O. (1985) Quality assessment in laboratory-reared insects. In Handbook of Insect Rearing (Edited by Singh, P. and Moore R. F.), Vol. I, pp. 107–135. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  41. Nijhout, H. F. (1975) A threshold size for metamorphosis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.). Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole) 149: 214–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nijhout, H. F. (1979) Stretch-induced moulting in Oncopeltusfasciatus. J. InsectPhysiol. 25: 277–281.Google Scholar
  43. Nijhout, H. F. (1981) Physiological control of moulting in insects. Am. Zool. 21: 631–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nijhout, H. F. and Williams C. M (1974a) Control of moulting and metamorphosis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.): Growth of the last instar larva and the decision to pupate. J. Exp. Biol. 61, 481–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Nijhout, H. F. and Williams, C. M. (1974b) Control of moulting and metamorphosis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.): Cessation of pupation. J. Exp. Biol. 61: 493–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ochieng’ R. S. and Bungu M. D. O. (1983) Studies in the legume pod-borer Maruca testulalis (Geyer) IV. A model for mass rearing: Rearing on artificial diet. Insect Sci. Applic. 4: 83–88.Google Scholar
  47. Ochieng’ R. S., Otieno, L. H. and Banda, H. K. (1987) Performance of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes reared under simple laboratory conditions. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 45: 265–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ochieng’-Odero, J. P. (1988) Aspects of the life cycle, biological performance and quality of the black lyre leafroller “Cnephasia” jactatana (Walker). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Auckland, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  49. Robertson, F. W. (1965) The analysis and interpretation of population differences. In The Genetics of Colonizing Species (Edited by Baker, H. G. and Stebbins G. L.), pp. 95–113. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Safranek, L. and Williams, C. M. (1980) Studies of the prothoracicotropic hormone in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole) 158: 141–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Safranek, L. and Williams, C. M. (1984) Critical weights for metamorphosis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole) 167: 555–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Singh, P. and Ashby, M. D. (1985) Insect rearing management. In Handbook of Insect Rearing (Edited by Singh, P. and Moore R. F.), Vol. I, pp. 185–215. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  53. Slansky, F. Jr. and Scriber, J. M. (1985) Food consumption and utilisation. In Comprehensive Insect Biochemistry and Pharmacology Regulation: Digestion, Nutrition, Excretion (Edited by Kerkut, G. A. and Gilbert L. I.), Vol IV, pp. 87–163. Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  54. Spates, G. E. and Hightower, B. G. (1967) Sexual aggressiveness of male screw-worm flies affected by laboratory rearing. J. econ. Entomol. 60: 752–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wagner, M. R., Clancy, K. M. and Kirkbride, D. M. (1987) Predicting number of oocytes in adult western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis (Lepidotera: Tortricidae). Environ. Entomol. 16: 551–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Williams, C. M. (1975) Juvenile hormone … in retrospect and in prospect. In The Juvenile Hormones (Edited by Gilbert L. I.), pp. 1–14. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Woodring, J. P. (1983) Control of moulting in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus. J. Insect Physiol. 29: 461–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE-ICIPE Science Press 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. R. Ochieng’-Odero
    • 1
  1. 1.The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE)NairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations