The Development and Comparison of Visual Damage Thresholds for the Chemical Control of Plutella Xylostella and Crocidolomia Binotalis on Cabbage in India

  • K. Srinivasan
  • G. K. Veeresh
Research Article


An economic threshold on fresh cabbage affected by Plutella xylostella (L.) and Crocidolomia binotalis Z., based on visual estimates of defoliation and a determination of this damage on the marketable yield was developed. An initial survey of unprotected cabbage field for determination of general levels of number of holes caused by feeding of both the lepidopterous pests formed a prerequisite for conducting visual damage threshold experiments. Maintaining a low visual damage threshold of up to 1.0 mean hole (mean of two leaves) on the wrapper leaves, after initial protection of primordia, was found to be an effective alternative in reducing present reliance on weekly or fortnightly sprays for the control of both the pests on cabbage. The possibility of eliminating precupping sprays is supported by the study since the larval populations causing damage to either outer leaves or leaves about to cover the head did not reduce the yield to a significant extent. The use of thresholds based on larval counts of either P. xylostella or C. binotalis failed to give enough lead time during scouting and resulted in loss of marketability.

Key Words

Cabbage visual damage thresholds Crocidolomia binotalis Plutella xylostella 


Un seuil économique pour le chou marâicher frais atteint par le Plutella xylostella (L.) et le Crocidolomia binotalis Z. a été développé dans cette étude basée sur les estimations visuelles de la défoliation et la détermination de l’effet des dégats sur le rendement vendable. Une inspection préliminaire d’un champ de choux non-protégé pour la détermination des niveaux généraux de nombres de trous provoqués par le nourrissage des deux insectes lépidoptères nous a permis de conduire des études de seuils visuels des dégats. Le maintien d’un seuil visuel des dégats assez bas, de l’ordre de 1.0 trou moyen (moyen de deux feuilles) sur les feuilles extérieures, après la protection initiale des primordes, s’est révélé comme une alternative efficace pour réduire la dépendence actuelle de la pulvérisation hébdomadaire ou tous les quinze jours pour protéger les choux contre les deux insectes. Cette étude a montré également qu’il serait possible d’éviter la pulvérisation avant la formation du calice parce que les populations de larves qui provoquent des dégats aux feuilles extérieures ou bien aux feuilles qui sont en train de couvrir la tête du chou ne réduisaient pas le rendement d’une manière significative. L’utilisation de seuils basées sur les comptes des larves du P. xylostella ou du C. binotalis ne pouvait pas fournier un temps d’avertissement suffissant pendant l’inspection et conduisait aux pertes de choux vendables.

Mots Cléf

Visuelles de la défoliation Plutella xylostella Crocidolomia binotalis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anonymous (1980) Pest control in horticultural crops. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Extn Bull. No. 25, p. 44.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (1983) Economics of production and marketing of important fruits and vegetables in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Final scheme report financed by A. P. Cess funds of ICAR Indian Institute of Horticultural Research.Google Scholar
  3. Chalfant R. B., Denton W. H., Schuster D. J. and Workman R. B. (1979) Management of cabbage caterpillars in Florida and Georgia by using visual damage thresholds. J. econ. Ent. 72, 411–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Farrington J. (1977) Economic thresholds of insect pest infestation in peasant agriculture. A question of applicability. PANS 23, 143–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Harcourt D. G. (1963) Major mortality factors in the population dynamics of the diamondback moth, Plutella maculipennis (Curt.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Mem. ent. Soc. Canada 32, 55–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Singh Iqbal (1978) Population dynamics and integrated control of Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Doctoral thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  7. Jayarathnam K. (1977) Studies on the population dynamics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) and crop loss due to the pest in cabbage. Doctoral thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  8. Krishnaiah K., Jagan Mohan N. and Prasad V. G. (1978) Control of major insect pests of cabbage by new insecticides. Indian J. Pl. Prot. 6, 44–47.Google Scholar
  9. Lundgren L. (1975) Natural plant chemicals acting as oviposition deterrents on cabbage butterflies (Pieris brassicae (L.)), P. rapae (L.) and P. napi (L.). Zoologica Scripta 4, 253–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mani M. and Krishnamoorthy A. (1984) Toxicity of some synthetic pyrethroids and conventional Chemical insecticides to the diamondback moth parasite, Apanteles plutellae Kurdj. Trop. Pest Managt 30, 130–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nagarkatti S. and Jayanth K. P. (1982) Population dynamics of major insect pests of cabbage and of their natural enemies in Bangalore district (India). In Proceedings of the International Conference on Plant Protection in Tropics, pp. 325–347. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  12. Regupathy A. and Paranjothi G. (1980) Evaluation of certain insecticides against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella Curtis on cauliflower seed crop. Pesticides 14, 30–31.Google Scholar
  13. Renwick J. A. A. and Radke C. D. (1980) An oviposition deterrent associated with frass from feeding larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ. Ent. 9, 318–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Renwick J. A. A. and Radke C. D. (1981) Host plant constituents as oviposition deterrents for the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. Entomologia exp. appl. 30, 301–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sears M. K., Jaques R. P. and Laing J. E. (1983) Utilization of action thresholds for microbial and chemical control of lepidopterous pests (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Pieridae) on cabbage. J. econ. Ent. 76, 368–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shelton A. M., Sears M. K., Wyman J. A. and Quick T. C. (1983) Comparison of action thresholds for lepidopterous larvae on fresh market cabbage. J. econ. Ent. 76, 196–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Simonet D. E. and Morisak D. J. (1982) Utilizing action thresholds in small plot insecticide evaluations against cabbage feeding lepidopterous larvae. J. econ. Ent. 75, 43–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Srinivasan K. (1984) Visual damage thresholds for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) and leafwebber, Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller on cabbage. Doctoral thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  19. Stern V. M. (1973) Economic thresholds. A. Rev. Ent. 18, 259–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Workman R. B., Chalfant R. B. and Schuster D. J. (1980) Management of the cabbage Iooper and diamondback moth on cabbage by using two damage thresholds and five insecticide treatments. J. econ. Ent. 73, 757–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Srinivasan
    • 1
  • G. K. Veeresh
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations