Advertisement

Life History, Development and Behaviour of eldana Saccharina Walker on Sugar-Cane in Southern Ghana

  • M. A. Sampson
  • R. Kumar
Research Article

Abstract

Female Eldana saccharina Walker was found to lay 327 ±17.1 eggs within a period of 4 days and required three surfaces to lay eggs which were mainly deposited on the inner side of leaf sheaths fitting tightly on to the sugar-cane stalk. The mated females laid more eggs per female (327.0 ± 17.1) than virgin females (212.3 ± 5.5). The incubation period of the eggs of E. saccharina was found to be 5.64 + 0.01 (5–7) days in the laboratory and 5.82 ± 0.03 (5–7) days in the field. The mean larval duration was 31 days and pre-pupal period lasted 2.05 ± 0.05 days. Larvae were found to exude a brownish liquid from their mouth in the direction of the invading predators. The newly hatched larvae spread out in 1–3 days of hatching. The mean growth ratio of the larval instars was 1.54 ± 0.05. Pupae frequently occurred very close to the exit hole (less than 5 cm) and the pupal period varied from 7 to 13 (9.76 ± 0.05) days. The life cycle of E. saccharina was completed in 49 (36–62) days. The pre-oviposition period was 2 days and the female reproductive life lasted 4 days. It takes about 53 days for a succeeding generation to be produced. Adults of E. saccharina survived from 6 to 13 days. Adults reared from field collected larvae showed a sex ratio of 42:51 which was significantly different from 1:1 in the laboratory bred stock, at the 5% level of probability. A comparison of the life cycle of E. saccharina populations in Ghana and Uganda suggests the existence of two biotypes of the pest.

Key Words

Sugar-cane Eldana saccharina borer generations sex ratio biotype Ghana 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beard R. L. (1940) The biology of Anasa tristis De Geer with particular reference to the Tachinid parasite Trichopoda pennipes Fabr. Conn, agric. exp. sta. Bull. 440, 597–679.Google Scholar
  2. Davey K. G. (1965) Copulation and egg-production in Rhodnius prolixus and the role of the spermatheca. J. exp. Biol. 42, 373–378.Google Scholar
  3. Davey K. G. (1968) The control of oogenesis in Rhodnius prolixus. Proc. XIII Int. Cong. Ent. Moscow, 1968.Google Scholar
  4. Dick J. (1945) Some data on the biology of the sugarcane borer (Eldana saccharina Wlk). Proc. S. Afr. Sug. Tech. Ass. 19, 75–79.Google Scholar
  5. Engelmann F. (1960) Hormonal control of mating behaviour in an insect. Experientia 16, 69–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Engelmann F. (1964) Inhibition of egg maturation in a pregnant viviparous cockroach. Nature, Lond. 202, 724–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Englemann F. (1970) The Physiology of Insect Reproduction. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  8. Girling D. J. (1978) The distribution and biology of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its relationship to other stem borers in Uganda. Bull. ent. Res. 68, 471–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gordon N. T. and Bandai S. K. (1967) Effect of mating on egg production by the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 60, 1099–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gordon H. T. and Loher W. (1968) Egg production and male activation in new laboratory strains of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 61, 1573–1578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Johansson A. S. (1964) Feeding and nutrition in reproduction process in insects. Rev. ent. Soc. Lond. Symp. 2, 43–55.Google Scholar
  12. Johnson C. G. (1942) The ecology of the bed-bug Cimex lectularius L. in Britain. Report in Research 1935–40. J. Hyg., Camb. 41, 345–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Khalifa A. (1950) Spermatophore production and egg-laying behaviour in Rhodnius prolixus Stài. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Parasitology 40, 283–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Loher W. and Edson K. (1973) The effect of mating on egg production and release in the cricket. Telegryllus corn-modus. Entomologia exp, appl. 16, 483–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Odhiambo T. R. and Arora G. K. (1973) A comparative study of oocyte development in cottom stainers (Dysder eus spp.: Pyrrhocoridae) and the factors that control egg production. Entomologia exp. appi 16, 455–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Przibram H. and Megusar F. (1912) Wachstumsmess-ungen and Sphodromantis biculata Brum. Langeund Mass. Arch. Ent-Mech. Org. 34, 680–711.Google Scholar
  17. Quo F. (1959) Studies on the reproduction of the oriental migratory locusts: the physiological effects of castration and copulation Acta ent. sin. 9, 464–476.Google Scholar
  18. Richards O. W. (1949) The relation between measurements of the successive instars of insects. Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 24, 8–10.Google Scholar
  19. Roth L. M. and Willis E. R. (1956) Parthenogenesis in cockroaches. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 49, 195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sampson M. A. (1982) The biology of the lepidopterous stem-borers on sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in Ghana. Ph.D. thesis, University of Ghana, Legon.Google Scholar
  21. Sampson M. A. and Kumar R. (1983) Population dynamics of the stem-borer complex on sugar-cane in Southern Ghana. Insect Sci. Applic. 4, 25–32.Google Scholar
  22. Usua E. J. (1968) Temperature and relative humidity effects on the development of the immature stages of the maize stem borers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis. J. econ. Ent. 61, 1091–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Waiyaki J. N. (1971) The biology and control of the principal lepidopterous borers associated with sugarcane at the Tanganyika Planting Company, Arusha-Chini. Unpublished report, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Arusha, Tanzania.Google Scholar
  24. Wigglesworth V. B. (1956) The Principle of Insect Physiology, 5th edn. Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  25. Woodward T. E. (1952) Studies on reproduction cycle of three species of British Heteroptera, with special reference to the overwintering stages. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 103, 171–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Sampson
    • 1
  • R. Kumar
    • 2
  1. 1.International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE)NairobiKenya
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesRivers State University of Science and TechnologyPort HarcourtNigeria

Personalised recommendations