Advertisement

Plant Species Diversity and Crop Pest Control

An Analytical Review
  • C. W. Baliddawa
Mini-Review

Abstract

This paper reviews and analyses literature on the effect of plant species diversity on crop pests. It is observed that populations of several crop insect pest species are depressed under conditions of plant species diversity. The factors responsible for this depression are: parasites, predators, masking, camouflage, repellency, less colonization, resource concentration, unfavourable microclimate, physical obstraction and trap cropping. Natural enemies account for more than half of the cases where the pest population was claimed to be regulated in the weed-diversity systems. However, under conditions of crop-crop diversity, natural enemy action accounted for less than a third of the cases reviewed. It is further observed that most of the reviewed crop-crop diversity systems were of annual crops. It is therefore concluded that under conditions of annual cropping natural enemies are probably of lesser importance than other regulating factors.

Key Words

Plant species diversity crop border diversity within field diversity crop-crop diversity and weed-crop diversity 

Résumé

Le présent article analyse la littérature sur l’effet de la diversification des espèces de plantes comme moyen de lutte contre l’effet nocif des insectes. On observe que la population de plusieurs insectes nocifs aux cultures est réduite lorsqu’il y a diversification des espèces de plantes. Les facteurs qui déterminent cette réduction sont: les parasites, les rapaces, le camouflage, la repulsion, la colonisation réduite, la concentration des resources, un microclimat défavorable, encombrement et cultures pièges. Les ennemis naturels représentent plus de la moitié des cas où la population des insectes était censée être sous contrôle dans les systèmes de diversification des mauvaises herbes. Cependent, dans les conditions de diversification culture-culture, l’action de l’ennemi naturel ne représentait que moins d’un tiers des cas étudiés. Il est aussi à observer que la plupart des systèmes de diversification culture-culture étudiés étaient des systèmes de cultures annuelles. On doit donc conclure que dans des conditions de récoltes annuelles, les ennemis naturels’sont peut-être d’une importance moindre que en cas de contrôle par d’autres facteurs.

Mot Clefs

La diverification des espèces de plantes diversité des cultures diversification culture-culture et diversification mauvaises herbes-culture 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altieri M. A. and Whitcomb W. H. (1980) Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn. Environ. Mgmt 4, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altieri M. A. and Todd J. W. (1981) Some influences of vegetational diversity on insect communities of Georgian soybean fields. Prot. Ecol. 3, 333–338.Google Scholar
  3. Altieri M. A. and Letourneau D. K. (1982) Vegetation management and biological control in agroecosystems. Crop Prot. 1, 405–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altieri M. A., Schoonhoven A. van and Doll D. J. (1977) The ecological role of weeds in insect pest management systems: A review illustrated by bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cropping systems. PANS 23, 195–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altieri M. A., Francis C. A., Schoonhoven A. van and Doll D. J. (1978) A review of insect prevalence in maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) polycultural systems. Fd Crops Res. 1, 33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amoako-Atta B., Omolo E. and Kidega E. K. (1982) Influence of maize cowpea and sorghum intercropping systems on stem/pod borer infestations. The international study workshop on crop borers and emerging strategies for their control. Mbita Point Field Station, 15–18 June 1982.Google Scholar
  7. Andrews D. J. and Kassam A. H. (1975) Importance of multiple cropping in increasing world food supplies. In Multiple Cropping A.S.A. Publication (Edited by Papendiek R. T., Sachez P. A. and Triplet G. B.), pp. 1–10. A.S.A. Special Publication No. 27, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  8. Anon. (1973) Annual report for 1972 International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  9. Anon. (1980) Fewer beetle pests on beans and cowpeas interplanted with bananas in Costa Rica. Turrialba 30, 220–230.Google Scholar
  10. Anon. (1981) Cropping entomology. Annual report. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, P.O. Andhra Pradesh 502, India, pp. 213–219.Google Scholar
  11. Back E. C. (1980) Effects of plant diversity and time of colonization on an herbivore-plant interaction. Oecologia, Berl. 44, 319–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baliddawa C. W. (1983) Some effects of crop diversity on the weevil Sitona lineatus L. (Coleóptera: Curculionidae). Ph.D thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
  13. Baliddawa C. W. (1984) Movement and feeding activity of adult pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. in an oat-broadbean diculture. Insect Sci. Applic. 5, 33–41.Google Scholar
  14. Bobb M. L. (1939) Parasites of the oriental fruit moth in Virginia. J. econ. Ent. 32, 605–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bombosch S. (1966) Occurrence of enemies of different weeds with aphids. In Ecology of Aphidophagous Insects (Edited by Hodek A.), pp. 177–179. Academia, Prague.Google Scholar
  16. Bosch R. van den and Telford A. (1964) Environmental modification and biological control. In Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds (Edited by Bach P. de), pp. 459–488. Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Bosch R. van den and Stern V. M. (1969) The effect of harvesting practices on insect populations in alfalfa. In Proceedings of Tall Timbers Conference on Ecological Animal Control by Habitat Management, Tallahassee, Vol. 1, pp. 47–54. Florida Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee.Google Scholar
  18. Burandy R. P. and Raros R. S. (1975) Effects of cabbage–tomato intercropping on the incidence and oviposition of the diamond-back moth Plutella xylostella (L.). Philipp. Ent. 2, 369–374.Google Scholar
  19. Cromartie W. J. (1975) The effect of stand size and vegetational background on the colonization of cruciferous plants by herbivorous insects. J. appl. Ecol. 12, 517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cromartie W. J. (1981) The environmental control of insects using crop diversity. In CRC Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture (Edited by Pimentel D.), Vol. 1, pp. 223–250. CRC Handbook Series in Agriculture, Bocaraton Florida CRC Press.Google Scholar
  21. DeLoach C. J. and Peters J. C. (1972) Effect of stripplanting vs solid-planting on predators of cotton insects in Southeastern Missouri, 1969. Environ. Ent. 1, 94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dempster J. P. (1969) Some effects of weed control on the numbers of the small cabbage white (Pieris rapae) on brussel sprouts. J. appl. Ecol. 6, 339–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dempster J. P. and Coaker T. H. (1974) Diversification of crop ecosystems as a means of controlling pests. In Biology in Pest and Disease Control (Edited by Price Jones D. and Solomon M. E.), pp. 106–114. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Dickler E. (1978) Influence of beneficial arthropods on the codling moth in an orchard with green covered and clean cultivated soil. In Summaries of Papers Presented at the Joint FAO/IAEA and IOBC/WPRS Research Coordindation Meetings, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 16–18. Paul Parey, Berlin.Google Scholar
  25. Doutt R. L. and Nakata J. (1973) The rubus leafhopper and its egg parasitoid: An endemic biotic system useful in grape pest management. Environ. Ent. 2, 381–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Emden H. F. van (1962) Observations on the effect of flowers on the activity of parasitic Hymenoptera. Entomologist’s mon. Mag. 98, 225–236.Google Scholar
  27. Emden H. F. van (1965) The role of uncultivated land in the biology of crop pests and beneficial insects. Scient. Hort. 17, 121–136.Google Scholar
  28. Flaherty D. (1969) Ecosystem trophic complexity and Willamette mite, Eotetranychus willametei (Acariña: Tetraanychidae) densities. Ecology 50, 911–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Galecka B. (1966) The role of predators in the reduction of two species of potato aphids, Aphis nasturtii Kalt. and A. frangulae Calt. Ecol. Pot. 14, 245–274.Google Scholar
  30. Guevara J. C. (1962) Efecto de las practicas de siembra y de cultivos sobre en maiz y frijol. Fitotech. Lalinoam. 1, 15–26.Google Scholar
  31. Haynes R. J. (1980) Influence of soil management practice on the orchard agroecosystem. Agro-ecosystem 6, 3–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Horn D. J. (1981) Effect of weedy backgrounds on colonization of collards by green peach aphid Myzus persicae and its major predators. Environ. Ent. 10, 285–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Huffaker C. B. and Messenger P. S. (Eds) (1976) Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Juarez H. A., Burgos C. F. and Saunders J. L. (1982) Maize-cowpea mixed crop system. Response to insect control and maize population variation. J. econ. Ent. 75, 216–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kassam A. H. (1973) In search for greater yields with mixed cropping in Northern Nigeria. A report on agronomic work. Inst, for Agrie. Research, Samaru, Ahmodu Bello University, P.M. Box 1044, Zaria.Google Scholar
  36. Kayumbo H. Y., Finlay R. C. and Doto S. A. (1976) Effect of spraying on yield of cowpeas grown in monoculture and under maize, sorghum or millet. Paper presented at Symposium on Intercropping in Semi-Arid Areas, Morogoro, Tanzania, 10–12 May.Google Scholar
  37. Leius K. (1967) Influence of wild flowers on parasitism of tent caterpillar and codling moth. Can. Ent. 99, 444–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lester M. L. and Furr R. E. (1972) Heliothis populations in cotton-sesame interplantings. J. econ. Ent. 65, 1524–1525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Litsinger J. A. and Moody K. (1976) Integrated pest management in multiple cropping systems. In Multiple Cropping (Edited by Papendiek R. T., Sachez P. A. and Triplet G. B.), pp. 293–316. A.S.A. Special Publication No. 27, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  40. Maier C. T. (1981) Parasitoids emerging from puparia of Rhagoletis pomonella (Díptera: Tephritidae) infesting hawthorn and apple in Connecticut. Can. Ent. 113, 867–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Marcovitch S. (1935) Experimental evidence on the value of strip farming as a method for the natural control of injurious insects with special reference to plant lice. J. econ. Ent. 28, 62–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mayse M. A. and Price P. W. (1978) Seasonal development of soyabean arthropod communities in each central Illinois. Agro-ecosystem 5, 387–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McIntosh R. P. (1975) Plant ecology 1947–1972. Ann. M. bot. Gdn 61, 132–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. National Academy of Sciences (1969) Principles of Plant and Animal Control Vol. 3. Insect Pest Management and Control. N.A.S., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  45. Norman D. W. (1974) Rationalising mixed cropping under indigenous conditions. J. devl. Stud. 11, 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. O’Donnell M. A. and Coaker T. H. (1975) Potential on intracrop diversity for the control of brassica pests. In Proceedings 8th British Insecticide and Fungicide Conference 1975 Vol. 1, pp. 101–107.Google Scholar
  47. Perrin R. M. (1975) The role of the perennial stinging nettle Urtica dioica as a reservoir of beneficial natural enemies. Ann. appl. Biol. 81, 289–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Phillips M. L. (1977) Some effects of intercropping brussels sprouts and tomatoes on infestations of Plutella maculipennis and Aleyrodes brassicae. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
  49. Pimentel D. (1960) Species diversity and insect population outbreaks. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 54, 76–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pollard E. (1968a) Hedges II. The effect of removal of cotton flora of a hawthorn hedgerow on the fauna of hawthorn. J. appl. Ecol. 5, 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pollard E. (1968b) Hedges IV. A comparison between the carabidae of a hedge and a failed site and those of a woodland glade. J. appl. Ecol. 5, 649–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pollard E. (1971) Hedges VI. Habitat diversity and crop pests. A study of Brevicoryne brassicae and its syrphid predators. J. appl. Ecol. 8, 751–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Raros R. S. (1973) Prospectus and problems of integrated pest control in multiple cropping. IRRI, Saturday Seminar. Los Banos, Phillipes.Google Scholar
  54. Risch S. J. (1980) Comunicaciones—Few beetle pests on beans and cowpeas interplanted with banana in Costa Rica. Turrialba 30, 229–230.Google Scholar
  55. Risch S. J. (1981) Insect herbivore abundance in tropical monocultures and polycultures: an experimental test of two hypothesis. Ecology 62, 1325–1340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Risch S. J. and Andow D. (1982) Insect movements and intercropping: An explanation for lower pest population in polycultures. Section of Ecology and Systematics, Division of Biological Sciences, Longmuir Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  57. Root R. B. (1973) Organization of a plant-arthropod association in simple and diverse habitats: the fauna of collards (Brassica olerácea). Ecol. Monogr. 45, 95–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Saxena K. N. and Basit A. (1982) Interference with the establishment of the leafhopper Amrasca dévastons on its host plants by certain non-host plants. In Proceedings of Sth International Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships, Wageningen 1982, pp. 153–162. Pudoc, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  59. Smith J. G. (1969) Some effects of crop background on populations of aphids and thier natural enemies on brussel sprouts. Ann. appl. Biol. 63, 326–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Smith J. G. (1976) Influence of crop background on aphids and other phytophagous insects on brussel sprouts. Ann. appl. Biol. 83, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Smith R. F. and Reynolds H. T. (1972) Effects of manipulation of cotton agroecosystems on insect pest populations. In The Careless Technology (Edited by Farvar M. T. and Milton J. P.), pp. 373–406. Natural History Press, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Speight H. R. and Lawton J. H. (1976) The influence of weed cover on the mortality imposed on artificial prey by predatory ground beetles in cereal fields. Oecologia 23, 211–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Syme P. D. (1975) The effects of flowers on the longevity and fecundity of two native parasites of the european pine shoot moth in Ontario. Environ. Ent. 4, 337–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tahvanainen J. O. and Root R. B. (1972) The influence of vegetational diversity on the population ecology of a specialized herbivore. Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleóptera: Chrysomelidae). Oecologia 10, 321–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Theunissen J. and Den Ouden H. (1980) Effects of intercropping with Spergula arvensis on pests of brussel sprouts. Entomología exp. appl. 27, 260–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Thiele H. U. (1977) Carabid Beetles and Their Environments. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Topham M. and Beardsley J. W. (1975) An influence of nectar source plants in the New Guinea sugarcane weevil parasite, Lixophaga sphenophori (Villeneuve). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, Vol. 22, pp. 145–155.Google Scholar
  68. Tothill J. D. (1958) Some reflections on the causes of insect outbreaks. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Entomology 4, 525–531.Google Scholar
  69. Usembo E. I. (1976) Approaches to integrated control of cotton pests in the Mid Western State of Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
  70. Way M. J. (1966) The natural environment and integrated methods of pest control. J. appl. Ecol. 3, 29–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Way M. J. (1976) Diversity and stability concepts in relation to tropical insect pest management. In Entomology and the Nigerian Economy (Edited by Youdeowei A.), pp. 68–93. Entomological Society of Nigeria, Occasional Publication No. 18.Google Scholar
  72. Way M. J. and Cammell M. E. (1981) Effects of weeds and weed control on invertebrate pest ecology. In Pathogens and Vegetation (Edited by Thresh M. J.), pp. 443–458.Google Scholar
  73. Winde P. N. and Franz H. E. (1979) Plant population structure and aphid parasitism; changes in barley monoculture and mixtures. J. appl. Ecol. 16, 259–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. W. Baliddawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Crop ScienceMakerere UniversityUganda

Personalised recommendations