Karyotypes of some Ghanaian Shield-Bugs and the Higher Systematics of the Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

  • Kwame Afreh Nuamah
Research Article


Data on 2n-numbers of 55 species, belonging to six families of Ghanaian shield-bugs, collected in Southern Ghana, West Africa, are presented. Micrographs and tracings of karyotypes observed for each species are reproduced as figures. Histograms of chromosome numbers of the various families have been constructed and these results, together with the existing information in the literature, are analysed and discussed.

In all, 217 species of Pentatomoidea were found to be known cytologically in the literature. With the present work, the total number of species of shield-bugs where the karyotypes are now known stands at 266.

The following karyotype groups appear to emerge from the study: 14 and 12. Under group 14 is the family Pentatomidae, whilst the families Scutelleridae, Cydnidae and Plataspidae fall under the karyotype group 12. No basic chromosome number can however be cited for the other families of Pentatomoidea, namely the Dinidoridae, Tessaratomidae, Acanthosomatidae and Urostylidae, because the cytological data for each of these are too scanty for any such conclusions to be arrived at. The interrelation of various groups in the superfamily Pentatomoidea is discussed, and the present investigations tend to support the work and conclusions arrived at by morpho-taxonomical studies.

Key Words

Karyotypes shield-bugs chromosomes classification systematics families 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Banerjee M. R. (1958) A study of the chromosomes during meiosis in twenty-eight species of Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Homoptera). Proc. zool. Soc, Calcutta. 2, 9–31.Google Scholar
  2. Brues C. T., Melander A. L. and Carpenter F. M. (1954) Classification of insects. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv. 108, 180.Google Scholar
  3. China W. E. (1955) A reconsideration of the systematic position of the family Joppeicidae Reuter (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) with notes on the phytogeny of the suborder. A. Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 8, 333–370.Google Scholar
  4. China W. E. and Miller N. C. E. (1959) Check-list and keys to the families and subfamilies of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Bull. Vr. Mus. nat. Hist. Entomology 8, 1–45.Google Scholar
  5. Cobben R. H. (1968) Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera Pt. I. Eggs, architecture of the shell, gross embryology and eclosion. Centre Agri. Publ. Doc., Wageningen.Google Scholar
  6. Cobben R. H. (1978) Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera Pt II. Mouthparts—structure and feeding strategies. Centre Agri. Publ. Doc., Wageningen.Google Scholar
  7. Distant W. L. (1881) Insecta Rhynchota Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Biol cent. Am. Het. 1, 1–462.Google Scholar
  8. Dupius C. (1949) Les Asopinae de la fauna francais (Hemiptera Pentatomidae). Essai sommaire de synthese morphologique, systematique et biologique. Revue fr. Ent. 16, 233–250.Google Scholar
  9. Evans J. W. (1946) A natural classification of leaf-hoppers (Jassidae, Homoptera). Part 1. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 96, 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Geitler L. (1938) Ueber den Bau des Ruhekerns mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der Heteropteran. Biol. Zbl. 58, 152–179.Google Scholar
  11. Halkka O. (1956) Studies on mitotic and meiotic cell division in certain Hemiptera under normal and experimental conditions. Ann. Acad. Sci. 32, 1–80.Google Scholar
  12. Heizer P. (1951) The chromosome cytology of an Oahu species of the Pacific genus Oechalia (Pentatomidae, Hemiptera-Heteroptera). J. Morph. 88, 185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hughes-Schrader S. and Schrader F. (1956) Polyteny as a factor in the chromosomal evolution of the Penta-tomini (Hemiptera). Chromosoma 8, 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hughes-Schrader S. and Schrader F. (1957) The Nezara complex (Pentatomidae:Heteroptera) and its taxonomical and cytological status. J. Morph. 101, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jande S. S. (1959a) An analysis of the chromosomes in the four species of the family Belostomatidae (Heteroptera, Cryptocerata). Res. Bull. Punjab Univ. Sci. 10, 25–34.Google Scholar
  16. Jande S. S. (1959b) Chromosome number and sex mechanism in twenty-seven species of Indian Heteroptera. Res. Bull. Panjab Univ. Sci. 10, 215–217.Google Scholar
  17. Kirkaldy G. W. (1908) Some remarks on the phylogeny of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Can. Ent. 40, 357–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kirkaldy G. W. (1909) Catalogue of Hemiptera (Heteroptera) I. Cimicidae. Berlin.Google Scholar
  19. Kpordugbe P. G. O. (1979) Karyotypes of some tropical reduviids and cytotaxonomy of Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). M.Sc. thesis, University of Ghana.Google Scholar
  20. Kumar R. (1962) Morpho-taxonomical studies on the genitalia and salivary glands of some Pentatomoidea. Ent. Tidskr. 83, 44–88.Google Scholar
  21. Kumar R. (1964) On the structure and function of the so-called ejaculatory reservoir in Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera:Heteroptera). Proc. Rov. Soc. Qd. 75, 51–65.Google Scholar
  22. Kumar R. (1965) Contributions to the morphology and relationships of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera:Heteroptera) Pt I. Scutelleridae. J. Ent. Soc. Qd. 4, 41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kumar R. (1968a) Aspects of the morphology and relationships of the superfamilies Lygaeoidea, Piesmatoidea and Pyrrhocoroidea (Hemiptera:Heteroptera). Entomologist’s mon. Mag. 103, 251–261.Google Scholar
  24. Kumar R. (1968b) Morphology and relationships of the Pentatomoidea (Heteroptera) IV. Oncomerinae (Tessara-tomidae). Aust. J. Zool. 17, 55–696.Google Scholar
  25. Kumar R. (1971) Morphology and relationships of the Pentatomoidea (Heteroptera) V. Urostylidae. Am. Midi. Nat. 1, 63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leston D. (1954a) Wing venation and genitalia of Tessara-toma Berthoid, with remarks on Tessaratomini Stal (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae). Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 29, 9–16.Google Scholar
  27. Leston D. (1954b) The male genitalia of Schirus bicolor (L) (Heteroptera:Cydnidae). J. Soc. Br. Ent. 5, 75–78.Google Scholar
  28. Leston D. (1955) A key to the genera of Oncomerinae Stal (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 24, 62–68.Google Scholar
  29. Leston D. (1958) Chromosome number and the system-atics of Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera). Proc. 10th Int. Congress. Ent., Montreal 2, 911–918.Google Scholar
  30. Leston D., Pendergrast J. C. and Southwood T. R. E. (1954) Classification of the terrestrial Heteroptera. Nature, Lond. 174, 91–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lethierry and Severin (1893) Catalogue general des Hemipteres. Mus. R. Hist. nat. Belg. 1, 239.Google Scholar
  32. Louis and Kumar R. (1972) Morphology of the alimentary and reproductive organs in Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) with comments on interrelationships within the family. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 66, 635–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. MackerraS I. M. (ed.) (1970) The Insects of Australia. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Australia.Google Scholar
  34. Makino S. (1951) An Atlas of the Chromosome Numbers in Animals. Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Manna G. K. (1950) Multiple sex chromosome mechanism in a reduviid bug, Conorhinus rubrofasciatus (de Geer). Proc. zool. Soc. Beng. 3, 155–161.Google Scholar
  36. Manna G. K. (1951) A study of the chromosomes during meiosis in forty-three species of Indian Heteroptera. Proc. zool. Soc. Beng. 4, 1–116.Google Scholar
  37. Manna G. K. (1958) Cytology and inter-relationships between various groups of Heteroptera. Proc. 10th Int. Congress Ent., Montreal 2, 919–934.Google Scholar
  38. Martin B. A. (1953) Temporary elimination of the autosomes from the meiotic spindle in a Halycinid Pentato-mid. J. Morph. 92, 209–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Miyamoto S. (1957) List of ovariole numbers in Japanese Heteroptera. Sieboldia. Fulkuska 2, 69–82.Google Scholar
  40. Miyamoto S. (1961) Comparative morphology of the alimentary organs of Heteroptera with the phylogenetic consideration. Sieboldia 2, 197–259.Google Scholar
  41. Montgomery T. H. (1901) Further studies on the chromosomes of the Hemiptera, Heteroptera. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 53, 261–270.Google Scholar
  42. Montgomery T. H. (1905) The spermatogenesis of Syrbula and Lycosa with general considerations upon reduction and the hetero chromosomes. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 57, 162–205.Google Scholar
  43. Montgomery T. H. (1906a) Chromosomes in the spermatogenesis of the Hemiptera. Trans. Am. phil. Soc. 21, 97–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Montgomery T. H. (1906b) The terminology of aberrant chromosomes and their behaviour in certain Hemiptera. Science 23, 36–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Parshad R. (1957a) Chromosome number and sex mechanism in twenty species of the Indian Heteroptera. Curr. Sci. 26, 125.Google Scholar
  46. Parshad R. (1957b) Cytological studies in Heteroptera. III. A comparative study of the chromosomes in the male germ-cells of eleven species of the subfamily Pentatominae. Res. Bull. Panjab Univ. Sci. 122, 401–420.Google Scholar
  47. Pendergrast J. G. (1957) Studies on the reproductive organs of Heteroptera with a consideration of their bearing on classification. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 109, 1–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pruthi H. S. (1925) The morphology of the male genitalia in Rhynchota. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 77, 127–267.Google Scholar
  49. Rao S. R. V. (1954) Meiotic studies in three species of Heteroptera. J. zool. Soc. India. 6, 153–158.Google Scholar
  50. Schachow S. D. (1932) Material uber die chromosomen der Hemiptera. Anat. Anz. 73, 456–479.Google Scholar
  51. Schaeffer C. W. (1964) The morphology and higher classification of the Coreoidea (Hemiptera:Heteroptera): Parts I and II. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 57, 670–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schaeffer C. W. (1966) Some notes on Heteropteran tri-chobothria. Mich. Ent. 1, 85–89.Google Scholar
  53. Schouteden H. (1905) Fauna entomologique de l’Afrique tropicale II. Arminae et Tessaratominae. Annls Mus. r. Congo beige Ser. 8ve (2) 1, 133–277.Google Scholar
  54. Schouteden H. (1910) Sjestedts KilimanjaroMeru Expedition 12 Hemiptera 6 Pentatomidae, pp. 73–96.Google Scholar
  55. Schrader F. (1945a) Regular occurrence of heteroploidy in a group of Pentatomidae (Hemiptera). Biol. Bull. 88, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schrader F. (1945b) The cytology of regular heteroploidy in the genus Loxa (Pentatomidae-Hemiptera). J. Morph. 76, 157–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schrader F. (1946a) The elimination of chromosomes in the meiotic divisions of Brachystethus rubromaculathus Dallas. Biol. Bull. 90, 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schrader R. (1946b) Autosomal elimination and preferential segregation in the harlequin lobe of certain Discocephalini (Hemiptera). Biol. Bull. 90, 265–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schrader F. (1947) The role of the kinetochore in the chromosomal evolution of the Heteroptera and Homoptera. Evolution, Lancaster, Pa. 1, 134–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schrader F..(1960) Evolutionary aspects of aberrant meiosis in some Pentatomidae (Heteroptera). Evolution, Lancaster, Pa. 14, 448–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schrader F. and Hughes-Schrader S. (1956) Polyploidy and fragmentation in the chromosomal evolution of various species of Thyanta (Hemiptera). Chromosoma 7, 469–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Scudder G. C. E. (1959) The female genitalia on the Heteroptera: morphology and bearing on classification. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 3, 405–467.Google Scholar
  63. Sharma G. P. and Parshad R. (1955) The morphology of chromosomes in Laccotrephes maculatus (Fab.) (Heteroptera). Res. Bull. Panjab Univ. Sci. 72, 62–72.Google Scholar
  64. Singh F. H. and Singh S. D. (1966) Meiotic studies in the bug Chrysocoris stollii Wolff. Naturwissenschaften 53, 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sinnadurai P. (1979) A revision of the Dinidoridae of the world (Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea) (keys to and descriptions of subfamilies, tribes, genera and species, with designation of types). Ph.D. thesis, University of Ghana, Legon.Google Scholar
  66. Southwood T. R. E. (1956) The structure of the eggs of the terrestrial Heteroptera and its relationships to the classification of the group. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 108, 163–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stys P. (1964) Thausmastellidae—a new family of pentato-moid Heteroptera. Acta Soc. ent. Cal. 61, 238–253.Google Scholar
  68. Ueshima N. (1963) Chromosome study of Thyanta pallido-virens (Stål) in relation to taxonomy (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae). Pan-Pacif. Ent. 39, 143.Google Scholar
  69. van Duzee E. P. (1917) Report upon a collection of Hemiptera made by Walter M. Gifford in 1916 and 1917. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 11Google Scholar
  70. Warren E., Gasswer G. and Breland O. P. (1960) Somatic chromosomes of praying mantids as shown by the squash techniques. Tech Rep. Biol. Med. 18, 674–678.Google Scholar
  71. White M. J. D. (1956) Cytogenetics and systematics entomology. A. Rev. Ent. 2, 71–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wilson E. B. (1905a) Studies on chromosomes I. The behaviour of idiochromosomes in Hemiptera. J. exp. Zool. 2, 371–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wilson E. B. (1905b) Studies on chromosomes II. The paired micro chromosomes, idiochromosomes and heter-ophic chromosomes in Hemiptera. J. exp. Zool. 2, 507–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wilson E. B. (1906a) The chromosomes in relation to the determination of sex in insects. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 3, 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wilson E. B. (1906b) Studies on chromosomes III. The sexual differences of the chromosome groups in Hemiptera with some consideration on determination and inheritance of sex. J. exp. zool. Med. 3, 1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wilson E. B. (1907) The case of Anasa tristis. Science 25, 191–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wilson E. B. (1911) Studies on chromosomes. A review of the chromosomes of Nezara, with some more general considerations. J. Morph. 22, 71–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wootjward T. E. (1950) Ovarioles and testis follicle numbers in the Heteroptera. Entomologist’s mon. Mag. 86, 82–84.Google Scholar
  79. Yosida T. H. (1956) Studies on the chromosomes of coleopteran and Hemiptera insects, with special regard to the quantitative relationship between autosomes and sex chromosomes. Proc. 10thth Int. Congress Ent., Montreal 2, 979–989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kwame Afreh Nuamah
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of GhanaLegonGhana

Personalised recommendations