Advertisement

Quantitative Bioassays for Sex Pheromone Analysis in Spodoptera Exempta (Wlk.) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), and Laboratory Evidence of Cross-Attraction among Three Species

  • Syed Khasimuddin
  • Morton C. Lubega
Article

Abstract

The courtship behaviour of male Spodoptera exempta (Wlk.) has been quantified and used as a method of bioassay for the female sex pheromone. Virgin females become attractive to sexually mature males from 72 hr after emergence and henceforth their attractiveness increases gradually until they have mated. Mated females start losing their attractiveness to males gradually after mating and 72–96 hr after mating they cannot produce any courtship response in males. Amongst virgin females, crude pheromonegland extract and synthetic pheromone compounds, it is the older live females and the crude extract at 0.1 female equivalent that produce highest responses in males. A certain degree of cross-attraction between three coexisting species has been noted, both by using live insects as well as synthetic pheromone compounds of these species under laboratory bioassays. Possible interspecific pheromone-related implications are discussed.

Key Words

Spodoptera exempta interspecific communication pheromone bioassay quantitative bioassay cross-attraction reproductive isolation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beevor P. S., Hall D. R., Lester R. G., Read J. S. and Nesbitt B. F. (1975) Sex pheromones of the armyworm moth, Spodoptera exempta (Wlk.). Experientia 31, 22–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blair B. W. and Tannock J. (1978a) A further note on the possible pheromone for Spodoptera triturata (Wlk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Rhod. J. agric. Res. 16, 221–223.Google Scholar
  3. Blair B. W. and Tannock J. (1978b) Observation of interspecific attraction by mated females of Spodoptera triturata (Wlk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Rhod. J. agric. Res. 16, 225–227.Google Scholar
  4. Brady E. U. and Gaynard M. C. Jr (1972) Identification of a sex pheromone of the female beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 898–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown E. S., Betts E. and Rainey R. C. (1969) Seasonal changes in the distribution of the African armyworm, Spodoptera exempta (Wlk.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with special reference to eastern Africa. Bull. ent. Res. 58, 661–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown E. S. and Dewhurst C. F. (1975) The genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Africa and the near east. Bull. ent. Res. 65, 221–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campion D. G. (1975) Sex pheromones and their uses for control of insects of the genus Spodoptera. Meded. Fac. Landb. Rijksuniv. Gent. 40, 283–292.Google Scholar
  8. Evans L. J. (1952) Female Aretia cacia L. attracting other Arctinae. Ent. Rec. 64, 86.Google Scholar
  9. Gaynard M. C. Jr and Brady U. E. (1972) Interspecific attraction in Lepidoptera in the field. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 56, 1279–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grant G. G. (1975) Extraction and bioassay of female sex pheromone of white-marked tussock moth, Oryia lencostigma (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae). Can. Ent. 107, 303–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kaae R. S., Shorey H. H., McFarland S. U. and Gaston L. K. (1973) Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera. XXXVII. Role of sex pheromones and other factors in reproductive isolation among ten species of Noctuidae. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 66, 444–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Khasimuddin S. (1979) Courtship and mating behaviour of the African armyworm, Spodoptera exempta (Wlk.), (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bull. ent. Res. 68, 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Klun J. A. and Robinson J. F. (1972) Olfactory discrimination in the European corn borer, and several pheromonally analogous moths. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 65, 1337–1340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mitchell E. R. (1976) Mating specificity in Spodoptera spp. Florida Entomologist 59, 416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mitchell E. R. (1982) Attraction of Schinia mitis males to southern armyworm females. Florida Entomologist 65, 291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nielson D. G. and Balderston C. P. (1973) Evidence of inter-generic sex attraction among aegeriids. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 66, 227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Roelofs W. L. and Comeau A. (1969) Sex pheromone specificity: taxonomic and evolutionary aspects of Lepidoptera. Science 165, 398–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Saunders C. J. (1971) Sex pheromone specificity and taxonomy of budworm moths (Choristoneura). Science 171, 911–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sekul A. A, and Sparks A. N. (1967) Sex pheromones of the fall armyworm moth: isolation, identification and synthesis. J. econ. Ent. 60, 1270–1272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shorey H. H., Gaston L. K. and Fukuto T. R. (1964) Sex pheromones of noctuid moths. I. A quantitative bioassay for the sex pheromone of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. econ. Ent. 57, 252–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tamaki Y., Noguchi H. and Yushima T. (1973) Sex pheromone of Spodoptera litura (F.): Isolation, identification and synthesis. Appl. ent. Zool. 8, 200–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tamaki Y. and Yushima T. (1974) Sex pheromone of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. J. Insect Physiol. 20, 1005–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pergamon Press LId 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Khasimuddin
    • 1
  • Morton C. Lubega
    • 1
  1. 1.The International Centre of Insect Physiology and EcologyNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations