Advertisement

The Dispersal of the Variegated Grasshopper, Zonocerus Variegatus (Linnaeus) (Orthoptera, Acridoidea, Pyrgomorphidae), in Open Fields and Cultivated Farms

  • Ifedioramma E. Nwana
Article

Abstract

Marked individuals of Zonocerus variegatus were released in batches of 100 per developmental cohort at definitive loci in either an open field of mainly giant star grass, Cynodon sp. or a cultivated farm of cassava, Manihot esculenta. The distance and direction of movement of individuals in any given stadium were determined in metres and angular degrees. The mean distances moved by marked Z. variegatus for each day of observation were determined by Clark’s root mean square formula.

The results showed that older cohorts covered more distance during a given period than young cohorts. However, while the first instar nymphs moved significantly less than any other cohort, the differences in the mean daily distances moved by nymphs of the second through the sixth developmental instars in the cassava farm were not statistically significant. For all cohorts, Z. variegatus covered significantly more distances in the open field than in the cultivated farm, suggesting that the availability of food inhibited the rate of dispersal of Z. variegatus. There was no significant difference in the number of Z. variegatus found on the different aspects of the compass.

Key Words

Dispersal variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus cultivated farm open field cassava control 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adu-Mensah K. and Kumar R. (1977) Ecology of Oxycarenus Species (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) in southern Ghana. Biol. J. Lin. Soc. 9, 349–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrewartha H. G. (1970) Introduction to the Study of Animal Populations. Methuen London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anya A. O. (1973) Ecology of the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea, Pyrgomorphidae) on the Nsukka Plateau, Nigeria. Entomologia exp. appl. 16, 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. British Ministry for Overseas Development (1977) Control of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) in Nigeria: Final report and recommendations. London, Centre for Overseas Pest Research.Google Scholar
  5. Chapman R. F. (1964) The structure and wear of the mandibles in some African grasshoppers. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 142, 107–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapman R. F. and Page W. W. (1978) Embryonic development and water relations of the eggs of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Acridoidae: Pyrgomorphidae). Acrida 7, 243–252.Google Scholar
  7. Clark D. P. (1962) An analysis of dispersal and movement in Phauiacridium vittatum (Sjost) (Acrididae). Aust. J. Zool 10, 382–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fuseini B. A. and Kumar R. (1975) Ecology of cotton stainers (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) in southern Ghana. Biol. J. Lin. Soc. 7, 113–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Golding F. D. (1940) Notes on the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus L. In Nigeria. Bull. ent. Res. 30, 543–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Golding F. D. (1946) The insect pests of Nigerian crops and stock. Spec. Bull. Dep. Agric. Nigeria No. 4.Google Scholar
  11. Jerath M. L. (1965) Notes on the biology of Zonocerus variegatus Linnaeus from Eastern Nigeria. Revue Zool. Bot. afr. 72, 243–251.Google Scholar
  12. Jerath M. L. (1968) Notes on the biology of some short horned grasshoppers from Eastern Nigeria (Orthoptera: Acridoidea). Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond.(A) 43, 27–38.Google Scholar
  13. Lamborn W. A. (1914) The agricultural pests of the Southern Provinces, Nigeria. Bull. ent. Res. 5, 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Libby J. L. (1968) Insect pests of Nigerian crops. Res. Bull, agric. Stn. Univ. Wis. No. 269.Google Scholar
  15. Modder W. W. D. (1978) Respiratory and weight changes, and water uptake, during embryonic development and diapause in the African grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Acridoidae: Pyrgomorphidae). Acrida 7, 253–265.Google Scholar
  16. Modder W. W. D. (1979) Effect of egg-pod exposure on respiration and dry matter and water content in eggs of the African grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Acridoidea: Pyrgomorphidae). Acrida 8, 219–226.Google Scholar
  17. Okere A. N. (1980) Studies on the Biology of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea). Ph.D. thesis, Ibadan.Google Scholar
  18. Oyidi O. (1966) Variation and Variability in Orthopteran Insects. Ph.D. thesis, London.Google Scholar
  19. Page W. W. (1978) Destruction of eggs as an alternative to chemical control of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) in Nigeria. Bull. ent. Res. 68, 575–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Peacock A. D. (1913) Entomological pests and problems of Southern Nigeria. Bull. ent. Res. 4, 191–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Taylor T. A. (1972) On the origin of the wet season form of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in southern Nigeria, with some biological notes. Bull. ent. Res. 61, 661–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Toye S. A. (1969) A severe damage to a banana plantation by Zonocerus variegatus (L.). Nigerian ent. Mag. 1, 125–128.Google Scholar
  23. Toye S. A. (1971) The locomotory activity of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) under natural light, temperature and humidity conditions. J. nat. Hist. 5, 601–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Toye S. A. (1974) Feeding and locomotory activities of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) Revue Zool. Bot afr. 88, 205–212.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pergamon Press LId 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ifedioramma E. Nwana
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural BiologyUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations