International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 237–240 | Cite as

Investigation of Animal Reservoirs of Visceral Leishmaniasis and The Isolation of Leishmania Major in Marigat, Baringo District, Kenya

  • Mutuku J. Mutinga
  • Johnson N. Ngoka


Animals were trapped in Marigat, Baringo District to investigate animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of the disease. Several species of rodents, carnivores and reptiles were captured. Specimens of spleen, liver and blood tissues were taken from the animals. The specimens were triturated into sterile saline and then cultured into NNN medium, and some of it injected into hamsters intraperitoneally. Skin biopsies were also taken and cultured in NNN medium. Slide smears of all the tissues taken were made stained with Giemsa stain and examined under the microscope for amastigotes. Four isolates of leishmanial parasites were made from a gerbil and three monitor lizards.

Key Words

Leishmania donovani Leishmania major animal reservoir gerbils rodents reptiles 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arap Siongok T. K. (1977) Cutaneous leishmaniasis: a new focus in Kenya. E. Afr. med. J. 54, 595–596.Google Scholar
  2. Beach, R. F., Young D. G. and Mutinga M. J. (1982) Phlebotomus (Phlebotomous) dubosque from Kenya. A new record from Kenya. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. (in press).Google Scholar
  3. Chance M. L., Schnur L. F., Thomas S. C. and Peters W. (1978) The biochemical and serological taxonomy of Leishmania from Aethiopian zoogeographical region of Africa. Ann. trop. med. parasit. 72, 533–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cole A. C. E. (1942) Cutaneous leishmaniasis in East Africa. E. Afr. med. J. 19, 199–200.Google Scholar
  5. Heisch R. B. (1963) Is there an animal reservoir of kalaazar in Kenya? E. Afr. med. J. 40, 359–362.Google Scholar
  6. Heisch R. B, Grainger W. E. and Harvey A. E. C. (1959) The isolation of Leishmania from gerbils in Kenya. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 62, 158–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Herrer A., Thatcher V. E. and Johnson C. M. (1966) Natural infection of Leishmania and trypanosomes demonstrated by skin culture. J. Parasit. 52, 954–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mutinga M. J., Kaddu J. B. and Irungu L. W. (1981) Animal models for feeding Kenyan wild-caught phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Phlebotomidae). Insect Sci. Application 2, 149–152.Google Scholar
  9. Mutinga M. J., Kaddu J. B., Sang D. K. and Siongok T. K. A. (1982) Leishmaniasis animal reservoir studies in Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J. 50, 27–29.Google Scholar
  10. Mutinga M. J. and Ngoka J. M. (1978) Incrimination of the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J. 55, 337–340.Google Scholar
  11. Mutinga M. J. and Ngoka J. M. (1980) Suspected vectors of lizard leishmaniasis in Kenya and their possible role in partial immunization of the human population against L. donovani in kala-azar endemic foci. Insect. Sci. Application 1, 207–210.Google Scholar
  12. Mutinga M. J., Ngoka J. M., Schnur L. F. and Chance M. L. (1980) The isolation and identification of leishmanial parasites from domestic dogs from Machakos district in Kenya and the possible role of dogs as reservoirs of kala-azar in East Africa. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 74, 140–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ngoka J. M. and Mutinga M. J. (1977) The dog as a reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 71, 447–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ngoka J. M. and Mutinga M. J. (1978) Visceral leishmaniasis animal reservoirs in Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J. 55, 332–336.Google Scholar
  15. Piers F. (1947) Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Kenya (with a note on penicillin treatment). Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 40, 713–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Southgate B. A. and Minter D. M. (1967) Leishmaniasis and its control in Kenya. WHO Inter-regional travelling seminar oil leishmaniasis, 22 May–10 June.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mutuku J. Mutinga
    • 1
  • Johnson N. Ngoka
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of NairobiNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations