Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae, is broadly used due to its immunomodulatory effects, potentials in protecting against many sever-disorders, and high safety-profile. The aim of this work is to make a phytochemical analysis of J. regia oil and kernel exploring their antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potentials utilizing combined bio-guided gas chromatography with mass spectrometer (GC-MS), gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analyses. Combined bio-guided GC-MS, GC-FID and RP-HPLC analyses is an innovative-combined-technique aiming at efficiently analyzing various-extracts phytochemical and biological characters. The J. regia oil and kernel ethyl-acetate extract were monitored during exploring their possible acute-antinflammatory, antidiabetic and antidiabetic-neuropathy. Glycated-hemoglobin, serum-insulin, serum-catalase and lipid-peroxidation levels have been also monitored. Combined bio-guided GC-FID, GC-MS and HPLC analyses have shown to be an efficient analyzing-method through identifying the most active compound, linoleic acid. Linoleic acid has shown the highest improvement of the acute inflammatory-pain, chronic blood-glucose level reduction, serum-insulin elevation, and normalization of glycated-hemoglobin levels. J. regia oil has shown more lipid-peroxidation reduction, while kernel ethyl-acetate extract has shown more acute-blood-glucose level reduction and serum-catalase levels elevation. Compared to tramadol, the highest-doses of J. regia oil, kernel ethyl-acetate extract, and linoleic acid have shown higher antinociceptive-potentials in amelioration of thermal-hyperalgesic and anti-allodynic neuropathic-pain. Thus, the antinflammatory, the reduction of oxidative-stress, and the insulin-secretagogue potentials might be among the possible mechanisms of improvement of neuropathic-pain. In correlation to conventional-techniques, the combined bio-guided analyses have shown to be an efficient innovative-combined technique. After further clinical studies, J. regia might be utilized as a possible-remedy for various painful-syndromes.
AOAC, 1998. Fatty acids in oils and fats. In: Preparation of Methyl Esters, 16th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg.
Bakirel, T., Bakirel, U., Keles, O.U., Ulgen, S.G., Yardibi, H., 2008. In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. J. Ethnopharmacol. 116, 64–73.
Boulton, A.J., Malik, R.A., Arezzo, J.C., Sosenko, J.M., 2004. Diabetic somatic neuropathies. Diabetes Care 27, 1458–1486.
Galer, B.S., Gianas, A., Jensen, M.P., 2000. Painful diabetic polyneuropathy: epidemiology, pain description, and quality of life. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pr. 47, 123–128.
Gardmark, M., Hoglund, A.U., Hammarlund-Udenaes, M., 1998. Aspects on tail-flick, hot-plate and electrical stimulation tests for morphine antinociception. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 83, 252–258.
Hayes, D., Angove, M.J., Tucci, J., Dennis, C., 2016. Walnuts (Juglans regia) chemical composition and research in human health. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 56, 1231–1241.
Hosseini, S., Huseini, H.F., Larijani, B., Mohammad, K., Najmizadeh, A., Nourijelyani, K., Jamshidi, L., 2014. The hypoglycemic effect of Juglans regia leaves aqueous extract in diabetic patients: a first human trial. Daru 22, https://doi.org/10.1186/2008-2231-22-19.
Koleilat, M., Raafat, K., El-Lakany, A., Aboul-Ela, M., 2017. Designing monographs for Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Lavandula angustifolia L: two Lebanese species with significant medicinal potentials. Pharmacogn. J. 9, 452–474.
Mathias, E.V., Halkar, U.P., 2004. Separation and characterization of lignin compounds from the walnut (Juglans regia) shell oil using preparative TLC, GC-MS and 1H NMR. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 71, 515–524.
Micov, A., Tomic, M., Pecikoza, U., Ugresic, N., Stepanovic-Petrovic, R., 2015. Levetiracetam synergises with common analgesics in producing antinociception in a mouse model of painful diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacol. Res. 97, 131–142.
Nasiry, D., Khalatbary, A.R., Ahmadvand, H., Talebpour Amiri, F., Akbari, E., 2017. Protective effects of methanolic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 17, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1983-x.
Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N., Yagi, K., 1979. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal. Biochem. 95, 351–358.
Ohsawa, M., Aasato, M., Hayashi, S.S., Kamei, J., 2011. RhoA/Rho kinase pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of thermal hyperalgesia in diabetic mice. Pain 152, 114–122.
Pan, A., Sun, Q., Manson, J.E., Willett, W.C., Hu, F.B., 2013. Walnut consumption is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women. J. Nutr. 143, 512–518.
Paudel, P., Satyal, P., Dosoky, N.S., Maharjan, S., Setzer, W.N., 2013. Juglans regia and J. nigra, two trees important in traditional medicine: A comparison of leaf essential oil compositions and biological activities. Nat. Prod. Commun. 8, 1481–1486.
Raafat, K., El-Darra, N., Saleh, F.A., Rajha, H.N., Maroun, R.G., Louka, N., 2018. Infrared-assisted extraction and HPLC-analysis of Prunus armeniaca L. pomace and detoxified-kernel and their antidiabetic effects. Phytochem. Anal. 29, 156–167.
Raafat, K., El-Haj, R., Shoumar, D., Alaaeddine, R., Fakhro, Y., Tawil, N., Shaer, F., Daher, A., Awada, N., Sabra, A., Atwi, K., Khaled, M., Messi, R., Abouzaher, N., Houri, M., AlJallad, S., 2017. Neuropathic pain: literature review and recommendations of potential phytotherapies. Pharmacogn. J. 9, 425–434.
Salama, R.A.M., El Gayar, N.H., Georgy, S.S., Hamza, M., 2016. Equivalent intraperitoneal doses of ibuprofen supplemented in drinking water or in diet: a behavioral and biochemical assay using antinociceptive and thromboxane inhibitory dose-response curves in mice. Peer J 4, e2239.
Sullivan, K.A., Hayes, J.M., Wiggin, T.D., Backus, C., Su Oh, S., Lentz, S.I., Brosius 3rd, F., Feldman, E.L., 2007. Mouse models of diabetic neuropathy. Neurobiol. Dis. 28, 276–285.
Tesfaye, S., 2013. Impact of Painful Diabetic Polyneuropathy on Patients. Springer, New York.
Wallace, M.S., Marcotte, T.D., Umlauf, A., Gouaux, B., Atkinson, J.H., 2015. Efficacy of inhaled cannabis on painful diabetic neuropathy. J. Pain 16, 616–627.
Willoughby, D.A., DiRosa, M., 1972. Studies on the mode of action of non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 31, 540.
Wu, Q.L., Liang, X.C., 2007. Survey of current experimental studies of effects of traditional Chinese compound recipe on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 32, 775–778.
Xu, H.B., Jiang, R.H., Chen, X.Z., Li, L., 2012. Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Ethnopharmacol. 143, 701–708.
Yasmineh, W.G., Kaur, T.P., Blazar, B.R., Theologides, A., 1995. Serum catalase as marker of graft-vs-host disease in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients: pilot study. Clin. Chem. 41, 1574–1580.
About this article
Cite this article
Raafat, K. Phytochemical analysis of Juglans regia oil and kernel exploring their antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potentials utilizing combined bio-guided GC-FID, GC-MS and HPLC analyses. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 28, 358–368 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2018.03.007
- Bio-guided GC-FID
- HPLC analyses
- Oil analysis
- Diabetes mellitus
- Acute inflammation
- Neuropathic pain