Natural membranes of Hevea brasiliensis latex as delivery system for Casearia sylvestris leaf components

Abstract

Natural latex from Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex A.Juss) Müll.Arg., Euphorbiaceae, showed angiogenic action and Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, leaf derivatives presented anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities. Therefore, an association of these effects was interesting for wound healing applications. The aims of this study were the development of membranes of natural latex incorporated with C. sylvestris leaf derivatives (ethanolic extract, diterpene concentrated fraction and casearin J), their chemical and physical characterization, and the evaluation of in vitro skin permeation and retention of C. sylvestris bioactive secondary metabolites (diterpenes and phenolic compounds). The membranes were developed mixing hydroethanolic solutions of C. sylvestris derivatives with latex and drying them in a desiccator. They were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability and mechanical resistance assays, demonstrating that all membranes were permeable, resistant and homogeneous in surfaces. The permeation and retention assays demonstrated dermal penetration of phenolic compounds for ethanolic extract membrane and of casearin-like clerodane diterpenes for all membranes, indicating that these membranes have great potential for therapeutical application as a topical system for C. sylvestris components releasing.

References

  1. Agostini, D.L.S., Constantino, C.J.L., Job, A.E., 2008. Thermal degradation of both latex and latex cast films forming membranes. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 91, 703–707.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Ahuja, S., Scypinki, S., 2001. Handbook of Modern Pharmaceutical Analysis, first ed, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Aielo, P.B., Borges, F.A., Romeira, K.M., Miranda, M.C.R., Arruda, L.B., Filho, L., Drago, P.N.B.C., Herculano, R.D., 2014. Evaluation of sodium diclofenac release using natural rubber latex as carrier. Mater. Res. 17, 146–152.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Akhgari, A., Farahmand, F., Garekani, H.A., Sadeghi, F., Vandamme, T.F., 2006. Permeability and swelling studies on free films containing inulin in combination with different polymethacrylates aimed for colonic drug delivery. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 28, 307–314.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Albano, M.N., da Silveira, M.R., Danielski, L.G., Florentino, D., Petronilho, F., Piovezan, A.P., 2013. Antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic crude extract from Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Salicaceae). J. Ethnopharmacol. 147, 612–617.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Alves de Sousa, L.C., Piza, M.R.T., Coutinho-Netto, J., Ruiz, D.B., Schmidt, V.B., 2007. Latex biomembrane: a new method to coat the open cavity in tympanomas-toidectomies. Braz. J. Otorhinolaryngol. 73, 331–336.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. Andrade, T.A., Iyer, A., Das, P.K., Foss, N.T., Garcia, S.B., Coutinho-Netto, J., Jordao-Júnior, A.A., Frade, M.A., 2011. The inflammatory stimulus of a natural latex biomembrane improves healing in mice. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 44, 1036–1047.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Balabanian, C.A., Coutinho-Netto, J., Lamano-Carvalho, T.L., Lacerda, S.A., Brentegani, L.G., 2006. Biocompatibility of natural latex implanted into dental alveolus of rats. J. Oral Sci. 48, 201–205.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Basile, A.C., Sertie, J.A., Panizza, S., Oshiro, T.T., Azzolini, C.A., 1990. Pharmacological assay of Casearia sylvestris I: preventive anti-ulcer activity and toxicity of the leaf crude extract. J. Ethnopharmacol. 30, 185–197.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Berard, F., Marty, J.P., Nicolas, J.F., 2003. Allergen penetration through the skin. Eur. J. Dermatol. 13, 324–330.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Bianchi, S.E., Teixeira, H.F., Kaiser, S., Ortega, G.G., Schneider, P.H., Bassani, V.L., 2016. A bioanalytical HPLC method for coumestrol quantification in skin permeation tests followed by UPLC-QTOF/HDMS stability-indicating method for identification of degradation products. J. Chromatogr. B: Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 1020, 43–52.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Boakye, C.H., Patel, K., Singh, M., 2015. Doxorubicin liposomes as an investigative model to study the skin permeation of nanocarriers. Int. J. Pharm. 489, 106–116.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Bolognesi, L.F.C., Borges, F.A., Cinman, J.L.F., Silva, R.G., Santos, A.G., Herculano, R.D., 2015. Natural latex films as carrier for Casearia sylvestris Swartz extract associated with ciprofloxacin. ACSJ 5, 17–25.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Borges, F.A., Bolognesi, L.F.C., Trecco, A., Drago, B.C., Arruda, L.B., Lisboa Filho, P.N., Pierri, E.G., Graeff, C.F.O., Santos, A.G., Miranda, M.C.R., Herculano, R.D., 2014. Natural rubber latex: study of a novel carrier for Casearia sylvestris Swartz delivery. ISRN Polym. Sci. 2014, 5.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bueno, P.C.P., Passareli, F., Anhesine, N.B., Torres, R.B., Cavalheiro, A.J., 2016. Flavonoids from Casearia sylvestris Swartz variety lingua (Salicaceae). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 68, 23–26.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Cilurzo, F., Cupone, I.E., Minghetti, P., Buratti, S., Selmin, F., Gennari, C.G., Montanari, L., 2010. Nicotine fast dissolving films made of maltodextrins: a feasibility study. AAPS PharmSciTech 11, 1511–1517.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Claudino, J.C., Sacramento, L.V., Koch, I., Santos, H.A., Cavalheiro, A.J., Tininis, A.G., Santos, A.G., 2013. Evaluation of morpho-anatomical and chemical differences between varieties of the medicinal plant Casearia sylvestris Swartz. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 85, 1253–1265.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Dwivedi, A., Mazumder, A., Fox, L.T., Brummer, A., Gerber, M., du Preez, J.L., Haynes, R.K., du Plessis, J., 2016. In vitro skin permeation of artemisone and its nano-vesicular formulations. Int. J. Pharm. 503, 1–7.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Esteves, I., Souza, I.R., Rodrigues, M., Cardoso, L.G.V., Santos, L.S., Sertie, J.A.A., Per-azzo, F.F., Lima, L.M., Schneedorf, J.M., Bastos, J.K., Carvalho, J.C.T., 2005. Gastric antiulcer and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil from Casearia sylvestris Sw. J. Ethnopharmacol. 101, 191–196.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Ferreira, P.M., Costa-Lotufo, L.V., Moraes, M.O., Barros, F.W., Martins, A.M., Cav-alheiro, A.J., Bolzani, V.S., Santos, A.G., Pessoa, C., 2011. Folk uses and pharmacological properties of Casearia sylvestris: a medicinal review. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 83, 1373–1384.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. Frade, M.A.C., Cursi, I.B., Andrade, F.F., Coutinho-Netto, J., Barbetta, F.M., Foss, N.T., 2004. Management of diabetic skin wounds with a natural latex biomembrane. Med. Cután. Ibero Lat. Am. 32, 157–162.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Freitas, J.V., Praca, F.S., Bentley, M.V., Gaspar, L.R., 2015. Trans-resveratrol and beta-carotene from sunscreens penetrate viable skin layers and reduce cutaneous penetration of UV filters. Int. J. Pharm. 484, 131–137.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Herculano, R.D., Brunello, C.A., Graeff, C.F.O., 2007. Optimization of a novel nitric oxide sensor using a latex rubber matrix. J. Appl. Sci. 7, 3801–3805.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Herculano, R.D., Guimarães, S.A.C., Belmonte, G.C., Duarte, M.A.H., Oliveira Júnior, O.N., Kinoshita, A., Graeff, C.F.O., 2010. Metronidazole release using natural rubber latex as matrix. Mater. Res. 13, 57–61.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Herculano, R.D., Silva, C.P., Ereno, C., Guimaraes, S.A.C., Kinoshita, A., Graeff, C.F.O., 2009. Natural rubber latex used as drug delivery system in guided bone regeneration (GBR). Mater. Res. 12, 253–256.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Maistro, E.L., Carvalho, J.C., Mantovani, M.S., 2004. Evaluation ofthe genotoxic potential of the Casearia sylvestris extract on HTC and V79 cells by the comet assay. Toxicol. In Vitro 18, 337–342.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. Mattos, E.S., Frederico, M.J., Colle, T.D., de Pieri, D.V., Peters, R.R., Piovezan, A.P., 2007. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of Casearia sylvestris and possible mechanism of action. J. Ethnopharmacol. 112, 1–6.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. Morita, H., Nakayama, M., Kojima, H., Takeya, K., Itokawa, H., Schenkel, E.P., Motidome, M., 1991. Structures and cytotoxic activity relationship of casearins, new clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris Sw. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39, 693–697.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Murbach, H.D., Ogawa, G.J., Borges, F.A., Miranda, M.C.R., Lopes, R., Barros, N.R., Mazalli, A.V.G., Silva, R.G., Cinman, J.L.F., Drago, B.C., Herculano, R.D., 2014. Ciprofloxacin release using natural rubber latex membranes as carrier. Int. J. Biomater., 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Oliveira, A.M., Santos, A.G., Santos, R.A., Csipak, A.R., Olivato, C., da Silva, I.C., Freitas, M.B., Bassi, C.L., Cavalheiro, A.J., Bolzani, V.S., Silva, D.H., Sakamoto-Hojo, E.T., Takahashi, C.S., Soares, C.P., 2009. Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris and its clerodane diterpen (caseargrewiin F) protect against DNA damage at low concentrations and cause DNA damage at high concentrations in mice’s blood cells. Mutagenesis 24, 501–506.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Oliveira, J.A.A., Hyppolito, M.A., Coutinho Netto, J., Mrué, F., 2003. Miringoplastia com a utilizacão de um novo material biossintético. Rev. Bras. Otorrinolaringol. 69, 649–655.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Oshima-Franco, Y., Alves, C.M.V., Andréo Filho, N., Gerenutti, M., Cintra, A.CO., Leite, G.B., Rodrigues-Simioni, L., Silva, M.G., 2005. Neutralization ofthe neuromuscular activity of bothropstoxin-I, a myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, by a hydroalcoholic extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Guacatonga). J. Venom. Anim. Toxins Includ. Trop. Dis. 11, 465–478.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Papadopoulou, V., Kosmidis, K., Vlachou, M., Macheras, P., 2006. On the use ofthe Weibull function forthe discernment of drug release mechanisms. Int. J. Pharm. 309, 44–50.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Peppas, N.A., Bures, P., Leobandung, W., Ichikawa, H., 2000. Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 50, 27–46.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Pichayakorn, W., Suksaeree, J., Boonme, P., Amnuaikit, T., Taweepreda, W., Ritthidej, G.C., 2012a. Deproteinized natural rubber latex/hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose blending polymers for nicotine matrix films. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51, 8442–8452.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Pichayakorn, W., Suksaeree, J., Boonme, P., Amnuaikit, T., Taweepreda, W., Ritthidej, G.C., 2012b. Nicotine transdermal patches using polymeric natural rubber as the matrix controlling system: effect of polymer and plasticizer blends. J. Membr. Sci. 411–412, 81–90.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Pierri, E.G., 2013. Avaliacão das atividades cicatrizante e anti-inflamatória de Casearia sylvestris Swartz em animais e identificacão dos marcadores químicos. Doutorado em Ciências Farmacêuticas. UNESP, Araraquara, pp. 125.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Pierri, E.G., Castro, R.C., Vizioli, E.O., Ferreira, C.M.R., Cavalheiro, A.J., Tininis, A.G., Chin, CM., Santos, A.G., 2017. Anti-inflammatory action of ethanolic extract and clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 27, 495–501.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Pongjanyakul, T., Puttipipatkhachorn, S., 2008. Alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate composite films: effect of film thickness on physical characteristics and permeability. Int. J. Pharm. 346, 1–9.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. Prezotti, F.G., Meneguin, A.B., Evangelista, R.C., Cury, B.S., 2012. Preparation and characterization of free films of high amylose/pectin mixtures cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 38, 1354–1359.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. Priyadarshan, P.M., Clement-Demange, A., 2004. Breeding Hevea rubber: formal and molecular genetics. Adv. Genet. 52, 51–115.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Romeira, K.M., Drago, B.C., Murbach, H.D., Aielo, P.B., Silva, R.M.G., Brunello, C.A., Herculano, R.D., 2012. Evaluation of Stryphnodendron sp. release using natural rubber latex membrane as carrier. J. Appl. Sci. 12, 693–697.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Santos, A.G., Ferreira, P.M., Vieira Junior, G.M., Perez, C.C., Tininis, A.G., Silva, G.H., Bolzani, V.S., Costa-Lotufo, L.V., Pessoa, CO., Cavalheiro, A.J., 2010. Casearin X, its degradation product and other clerodane diterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris: evaluation of cytotoxicity against normal and tumor human cells. Chem. Biodivers. 7, 205–215.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. Sato, M.E.O., Gomara, F., Pontarolo, R., Andreazza, I.F., Zaroni, M., 2007. Permeacão cutânea in vitro do ácido kójico. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Farm. 43, 195–203.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Silva, S.L., Calgarotto, A.K., Chaar, J.S., Marangoni, S., 2008. Isolation and characterization of ellagic acid derivatives isolated from Casearia sylvestris SW aqueous extract with anti-PLA2 activity. Toxicon 52, 655–666.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. Trecco, A., Borges, FA, Pierri, E.G., Santos, A.G., Chin, CM., Herculano, R.D., 2014. Liberacão de componentes do extrato de Casearia sylvestris Swartz empregando membranas de látex natural como suporte. Rev. Ciênc. Farm. Básica Apl. 35, 89–95.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. US Pharmacopeia XXIX, 2006. US Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville, MD.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to André G. Santos.

Additional information

Authors’ contributions

FAC realized collecting of plants, phytochemical analyses, development and characterization of membranes, permeation and skin retention in vitro analysis, and data interpretation. HSU participated in chromatograph analysis and casearin J purification. FAB and RDH contributed in membrane characterization. MHO and MPDG contributed to permeation and skin retention in vitro assays and interpretation data. AGS participated in the design and coordination of the work and helped to draft the manuscript. All the authors have read contributed to critical reading of the final manuscript and approved its submission.

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Carvalho, F.A., Uchina, H.S., Borges, F.A. et al. Natural membranes of Hevea brasiliensis latex as delivery system for Casearia sylvestris leaf components. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 28, 102–110 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2017.10.007

Download citation

Keywords

  • Diterpenes
  • Casearin
  • Phenolic compounds
  • In vitro permeation
  • In vitro retention
  • Natural latex membrane