Short-term carcinogenesis evaluation of Casearia sylvestris

Abstract

Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, is an important medicinal plant widely used in Brazil for the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. This species was included as of interest by Brazilian Unified Health System. Although preclinical studies described cardiovascular protective effects and apparent absence of toxicity, no studies have evaluated its carcinogenic potential. In this study, we proposed a short-term carcinogenesis evaluation of C. sylvestris in Wistar rats, aiming to check the safety of this species to use it as proposed by Brazilian Unified Health System. C. sylvestris leaves were obtained and the crude extract was prepared by maceration from methanol/water. Wistar rats were orally treated for 12 weeks with 50, 250 or 500 mg kg−1 of crude extract or vehicle. Body weight, daily morbidity and mortality were monitored. Blood and bone marrow samples were collect for micronucleus test, comet assay and tumor markers evaluation. Vital organs were removed to macro and histopathological analyses. The crude extract did not induce mutagenic and genotoxic effects and no alterations were observed in important tumor markers. Finally, no detectable signs of injury through gross pathology or histopathological examinations were observed. Our results certify the absence of the crude extract toxicity, indicating its safety, even at prolonged exposure as proposed by Brazilian Unified Health System.

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Correspondence to Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior.

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Authors’ contributions

CAST: in vivo experiments and data analyses. ELCJ: LC-MS analyses. SDVN, RDFJ and TCP: in vivo experiments. JAS, GKT and SAO: mutagenicity analyses. ACS and RICS: histopathological analyses. FARL: data analysis, data discussion and manuscript preparation. AGJ: data discussion and manuscript correction.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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Tirloni, C.A.S., Traesel, G.K., Lívero, F.A.R. et al. Short-term carcinogenesis evaluation of Casearia sylvestris. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 27, 603–610 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2017.05.009

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Keywords

  • Genotoxicity
  • Mutagenesis
  • Short-term carcinogenesis
  • Toxicity
  • Tumor markers