Anatomy and histochemistry of leaves and stems of Sapium glandulosum

Abstract

Sapium belongs to Euphorbiaceae family and comprises 23 species. Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong is popularly known in Brazil as “pau-leiteiro” and “leitosinha” and it is used in traditional medicine to cicatrisation. Its leaf extracts have shown analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. The preliminary set of pharmacognostic tools used for quality assessment of medicinal plant parts is macro-and micro-anatomy and S. glandulosum has not anatomical and histochemical description. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical and histochemical characteristics of the leaf and stem of S. glandulosum as a means of providing information for quality assessment of herbal industry. The leaves and stems were investigated by employing field emission scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and histochemistry techniques. The analysis showed that S. glandulosum had the following anatomical features: dorsiventral and amphistomatic leaves; paracytic stomata; tabular crystal druses; non-articulated and branched laticifers; midrib’s biconvex shape with vascular systems in open arc with invaginated ends; petiole with a round shape and slight concavity on the adaxial side; six collateral vascular bundles in U-shaped organisation; a circular stem shape and a sclerenchymatous ring. In the histochemical tests lipophilic components were found in cuticle and in the latex; phenolic compounds were met in the mesophyll and in the latex; starch grains were found in the parenchymatous sheath; lignified elements were met in the sclerenchymatous ring in the cortex and in the perivascular sclerenchymatous caps, beyond in the vessel elements. These features are helpful when conducting a quality control process.

References

  1. Agra, M.F., Silva, K.N., Basílio, I.J.L.D., de Freitas, P.F., Barbosa-Filho, J.M., 2008. Survey of medicinal plants used inthe region Northeast of Brazil. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 18, 472–508.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Al Muqarrabun, L.M.R., Ahmat, N., Aris, S.R.S., 2014. A review of the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacologyofthegenus Sapium. J. Ethnopharmacol. 155, 9–20.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Almeida, V.P., Hirt, A.A., Raeski, P.A., Mika, B.E., Justus, B., dos Santos, V.L.P., Franco, C.R.C., de Paula, J.P., Farago, P.V., Budel, J.M., 2017. Comparative morphoanatom-ical analysis of Mikania species. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 27, 9–19.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Barthlott, W., Neinhuis, C., Cutler, D., Ditsch, F., Meusel, I., Theisen, I., Wilhelmi, H., 1998. Classification and terminology of plant epicuticular waxes. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 126, 227–236.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Berlyn, G.P., Miksche, J.P., 1976. Botanical Microtechnique and Cytochemistry. Iowa State University, Ames.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Biscaro, F., Parisotto, E.B., Zanette, V.C., Gúnther, T.M.F., Ferreira, E.A., Gris, E.F., Correia, J.F.G., Pich, C.T., Mattivi, F., Wilhelm Filho, D., Pedrosa, R.C., 2013. Anticancer activity of flavonol and flavan-3-ol rich extracts from Croton celtidifolius latex. Pharm. Biol. 51, 737–743.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bobek, V.B., Heiden, G., Oliveira, C.F., Almeida, V.P., de Paula, J.P., Farago, P.V., Nakashima, T., Budel, J.M., 2016. Comparative analytical micrographs of vas-souras (Baccharis, Asteraceae). Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 26, 665–672.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Borio, E.B.L., 1959. Lobelia langeana Dusén. Contribuição para o estudo farmacognós-tico. da Faculdade de FarmáciadaUniversidade do Paraná, Brasil, 86 pp. Tese para concurso à docência livre da cadeira de farmacognosia, Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Paraná.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Costa, L.L.G., David, V.C., Pinto, R.M.C., Minozzo, B.R., Kozlowski Jr., V.A., Campos, L.A., Silva, R.Z., Beltrame, F.L., 2012. Anti-ulcer activity of Synadenium grantii latex. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 22, 1070–1078.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. da Silva, C.H.T.P., Sobrinho, T.J.S.P., Saraiva, A.M., Pisciottano, M.N.C., de Amorim, E.L.C., 2012. Phytochemical profile and antibacterial activity of bark and leaves ofCaesalpiniapyramidalis Tul. and Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong. J. Med. Plants Res. 6, 4766–4771.

    Google Scholar 

  11. da Silva, C.H.T.P., Sobrinho, T.J.S.P., e Castro, V.T.N.A., Lima, D.C.A., de Amorim, E.L.C., 2011. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. And Sapium glandulosum (L) Morong from Northeastern Brazil. Molecules 16, 4728–4739.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Demarco, D., Castro, M.M., Ascensao, L., 2013. Two laticifer systems in Sapium haematospennum - new records for Euphorbiaceae. Botany 91, 545–554.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Demarco, D., Kinoshita, L.S., Castro, M.M., 2006. Laticiferos articulados anastomosa-dos: novos registros para Apocynaceae. Rev. Bras. Bot. 29, 133–144.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Ferreira, B.G.A., Zuffellato-Ribas, K.C., Carpanezzi, A.A., Tavares, F.R., Koehler, H.S., 2009. Metodologias de aplicação de AIB no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de Sapium glandulatum (Veil.) Pax. Rev. Bras. Plantas Med. 11, 196–201.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Folquitto, D.G., Budel, J.M., Pereira, C.B., Brojan, L.E.F., Folquitto, G.G., Miguel, M.D., Silva, R.Z., Miguel, O.G., 2014. Analytical micrography and preliminary phytochemistry of the leaves and stems of Lobelia exaltata Pohl. (Campanulaceae). Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 33, 245–250.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Foster, A.S., 1949. Practical Plant Anatomy, 2nd ed. D. Van Nostrand, Princeton.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Franceschi, V.R., Nakata, P.A., 2005. Calcium oxalate in plants: formation and function. Anna Rev. Plant Biol. 56, 41–71.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Fuchs, C.H., 1963. Fuchsin staining with NaOH clearing for lignifled elements of whole plants or plants organs. Stain Technol. 38, 141–144.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Gales, R.C., Toma, C., 2007. Researches regarding the morphology, structure and distribution of vegetative organs of some Euphorbia species from Romania’s flora. Biol. Veg. 1, 40–45.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Gaucher, L., 1902. Recherches anatomiques sur les Euphorbiacées. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 15, 161–309.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Hagel, J.M., Yeung, E.C., Facchini, P.J., 2008. Got milk? The secret life of laticifers. Trends Plant Sci. 13, 631–639.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Hajdu, Z., Hohmann, J., 2012. An ethnopharmacological survey of the traditional medicine utilized in the community of Porvenir, Bajo Paragua Indian Reservation, Bolivia. J. Ethnopharmacol. 139, 838–857.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. He, H., Bleby, T.M., Veneklaas, E.J., Lambers, H., Kuo, J., 2012. Morphologies and elemental compositions of calcium crystals in phyllodes and branchlets of Acacia robeorum (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Ann. Bot. 109, 887–896.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Johansen, D.A., 1940. Plant Microtechnique. McGraw Hill Book, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Konno, It, 2011. Plant latex and other exudates as plant defense systems: roles of various defense chemicals and proteins contained therein. Phytochemistry 72, 1510–1530.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Lattanzio, V., Lattanzio, V.M.T., Cardinali, A., 2006. Role of phenolics in the resistance mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens and insects. In: Imperato, F. (org), Phytochemistry: Advances in Research. Research Signposts, Trivandrum, pp. 23–67.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Luz, L.E.C., Paludo, K.S., Santos, V.L.P., Franco, C.R.C., Klein, T., Silva, R.Z., Beltrame, F.L., Budel, J.M., 2015. Cytotoxicity of latex and pharmacobotanical study of leaves and stem of Euphorbia umbeiiata (Janaúba). Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 25, 344–352.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Meric, C., 2009. Calcium oxalate crystals in some species of the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae). Acta Biol. Crac. Ser. Bot. 51, 105–110.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Metcalfe, C.R., Chalk, L., 1950. Anatomy of the Dicotyledons. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Nakata, P.A., 2003. Advances in our understanding of calcium oxalate crystal formation and function in plants. Plant Sci. 164, 901–909.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. O’Brien, T.P., Feder, N., McCully, M.E., 1964. Polychromatic staining of plant cell walls by toluidine blue O. Protoplasma 59, 368–373.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Oliveira, F., Akisue, G., Akisue, M.K., 2005. Farmacognosia. Atheneu, Sao Paulo.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Pompert, M.G., 1989. Estudio morfo-anatomico de dos especies de Sapium (Euphorbiaceae). Bonplandia 6, 197–210.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Pscheidt, A.C., Cordeiro, I., 2012. Sinopse da tribo Hippomaneae (Euphorbiaceae) no Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea 39, 347–368.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Reeve, R.M., 1951. Histochemical tests for polyphenols in plant tissues. StainTechnol. 26, 91–96.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Riederer, M., Schreiber, L., 2001. Protecting against water loss: analysis of the barrier properties of plant cuticles. J. Exp. Bot. 52, 2023–2032.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Roeser, K.R., 1972. Die Nadel der Schwarzkiefer-Massenprodukt und Kunstwerk der Natur. Mikrokosmos 61, 33–36.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Rudall, P.J., 1987. Laticifers in Euphorbiaceaea conspectus. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 94, 143–163.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Sass, J.E., 1951. Botanical Microtechnique, 2nd ed. Iowa State College, Ames.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Satiro, L.N., Roque, N., 2008. A familia Euphorbiaceae nas caatingas arenosas do médio rio São Francisco, BA, Brasil. Acta Bot. Bras. 22, 99–118.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Secco, R.S., Cordeiro, I., Senna-Vale, L., Sales, M.F., Lima, L.R., Medeiros, D., Haiad, B.S., Oliveira, A.S., Caruzo, M.B.R., Carneiro Torres, D., Bigio, N.C., 2012. An overview of recent taxonomie studies on Euphorbiaceae s.l. in Brazil. Rodriguésia 63, 227–242.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Silva, R.J.F., de Aguiar-Dias, A.C.A., de Mendonça, M.S., 2014. Rosetas e concrescências cristalinas siliciflcadas em Piper (Piperaceae): registros inéditos de macropadröes. Acta Amazon. 44, 435–446.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Sobottka, A.M., Tonial, F., Sytwala, S., Melzig, M., 2014. Proteinase activity in latex of three plants of the family Euphorbiaceae. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. 50, 559–565.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Swiech, J.N.D., Bobek, V.B., Folquitto, D.G., Silva, R.Z., Budel, J.M., Farago, P.V., Miguel, M.D., Miguel, O.G., 2016. Morpho-anatomy of the vegetative organs of Philodendron meridionale (Araceae). Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 35, 2142–2148.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. The Plant List, 2015. Sapium, http://www.theplantlist.org/browse/A/Euphorbiaceae/Sapium/ (accessed October 2015).

  46. Upton, R., Graff, A., Jolliffe, G., Länger, R., Williamson, E., 2011. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia: Botanical Pharmacognosy - Microscopic Characterization of Botanical Medicines. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Valle, L.S., Kaplan, M.A.C., 2000. Sapium glandulatum complex (Euphorbiaceae). An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 72, 293–294.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Weiner, S., Dove, P.M., 2003. An overview of biomineralization processes and the problem of the vital effect. Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 54, 1–29.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jane Manfron Budel.

Additional information

Authors’ contributions

EAA, DGF, LECL and KSP assisted in carrying out the laboratory work. EAA contributed in collecting the plant material and its identification. PVF performed the scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. JMB created the project, supervised the laboratory work, and wrote the paper. All the authors have read the final manuscript and approved the submission.

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

de Andrade, E.A., Folquitto, D.G., Luz, L.E.C. et al. Anatomy and histochemistry of leaves and stems of Sapium glandulosum. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 27, 282–289 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2017.01.001

Download citation

Keywords

  • Druses
  • Euphorbiaceae
  • Pau-leiteiro
  • Pharmacobotanical study
  • Latex
  • Quality control