In a previous study, we reported the antispasmodic and gastroprotective effects of the Serjania caracasana (Jacq.) Willd., Sapindaceae, extract. In the present study, we evaluated the LD50, hemolytic and antispasmodic activities of its fractions and characterized its major constituents by isolation and GC-MS. The animals showed non-toxic symptoms with oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg, suggesting a safe oral administration. Furthermore, a low hemolytic activity was detected for the saponin fraction. Antispasmodic activity of the fractions was evaluated through carbachol-induced contractions in rat ileum. The hexane fraction was the most potent (IC50 68.4 ± 5.9 μg/ml) followed by the dichloromethane fraction (IC50 161.3.4±40.7 μg/ml). Butanol fraction was the less effective (IC50 219.8±60.3 μg/ml). The phytochemical study of the S. caracasana fractions afforded the isolation of friedelin, β-amyrin, allantoin and quercitrin. This is the first time that the presence of allantoin and quercitrin in the Serjania genus has been reported. Among the isolated compounds and those characterized by GC-MS, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were present in the most active fractions, hexane and dichloromethane, and they may be related to its antispasmodic activity. In addition, spathulenol was only found in the hexane fraction and its presence might justify the highest antispasmodic activity observed for this fraction.
Adams, R.P., 2007. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatogra-phy/Mass Spectrometry, 4th ed. Allured Publishing Corporation, Illinois, USA.
Agra, M.F., Silva, K.N., Basílio, I.J.L.D., Freitas, P.F., Barbosa-Filho, J.M., 2008. Survey of medicinal plants used inthe region Northeast of Brazil. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 18, 472–508.
Akihisa, T., Yamamoto, It, Tamura, T., Kimura, Y., Iida, T., Nambara, T., Chang, F.C., 1992. Triterpenoid ketones from Lingnania chungii McClure: arborinone, friedelin and glutinone. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 40, 789–791.
Aragão, J.A., Valle, J.R., 1973. Ictiotixicidade de timbós dos gêneros Serjania, Derris e Tephrosia. Ciência e Cultura 25, 643.
Arruda, A.P.C.C.B.N., Coelho, R.G., Honda, N.K., Ferrazoli, C., Pott, A., Hiruma-Lima, C.A., 2009. Gastroprotective effect of Serjania erecta Radlk (Sapindaceae): involvement of sensory neurons, endogenous nonprotein sulfhydryls, and nitric oxide. J. Med. Food. 12, 1411–1415.
Barbosa-Filho, J.M., Araujo, V.T., Bhattacharyya, J., 1988. Chemical constituents of Serjania salzmanniana. Fitoterapia 59, 430–431.
Bulgheroni, A., Kinsner-Ovaskainen, A., Hoffmann, S., Hartung, T., Prieto, P., 2009. Estimation of acute oral toxicity using the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) from 28 day repeated dose toxicity studies in rat. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 53, 16–19.
Chávez, M.I., Delgado, G., 1994. Isolation and relay systhesis of 11α-hydroperoxy diacetyl hederagenin, a novel triterpenoid derivative from Serjania triquetra (Sapindaceae). Biogenetic implications. Tetrahedron 50, 3869–3878.
Cordeiro, E.A., Valle, J.R., 1975. Ictiotixicidade comparada da rotenona e do serjanosideo. Cien. Cultura 27, 561.
Coutinho, D.J.G., Barbosa, M.O., Silva, R.M., Silva, S.I., Oliveira, A.F.M., 2015. Fatty-acid composition of seeds and chemotaxonomic evaluation of sixteen Sapindaceae species. Chem. Biodivers. 12, 1271–1280.
Dias, M.O., Hamerski, L., Pinto, A.C., 2011. Separacao semipreparativa de a e β-amirina por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quim. Nova 34, S1–S6.
Guarin-Neto, G., Santana, S.R., Silva, J.V.B., 2000. Notas etnobotânicas de es pédes de Sapindaceae Jussieu. Acta. Bot. Bras. 14, 327–334.
Ikeda, Y., Sugiura, Y.M., Fukaya, C., Yokoyama, It, Hashimoto, Y., Kawanishi, It, Moriyasu, M., 1991. Periandradulcins A, B and C: phosphodiesterase inhibitors from Periandra dulcis Mart. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39, 566–571.
Jenkinson, D.H., Barnard, E.A., Hoyer, D., Humphrey, P.P.A., Leff, P., Shankley, N.P., 1995. Internacional union of pharmacology committee on receptor nomenclature and drug classification. IX. Recommendations on terms and symbols in quantitative pharmacology. Pharm. Rev. 47, 255–266.
Kojima, H., Sato, N., Hatano, A., Ogura, H., 1990. Sterol glucosides from Prunella vulgaris. Phytochemistry 29, 2351–2355.
Maia-Braggio, M., Lapa, A.J., Valle, J.R., 1978. Mecanismo da ação tóxica da Serjania caracasana (Jacq.) Willd. Ciência e Cultura 30, 455.
Miller, L.C., Tainter, M.L., 1944. Estimation of the LD50 and its error by means of logarithmic probit graph paper. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 57, 261–264.
Oleszek, W., 1996. Alfafa Saponins: Structure, Biological Activity, and Chemotaxonomy. In Waller, G.R., Yamasaki, It (org.) Saponins Used in Food and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 155–170.
Perez-Hernandez, N., Ponce-Monter, H., Medina, J.A., Joseph-Nathan, P., 2008. Spasmolytic effect of constituents from Lepechinia caulescens on rat uterus. J. Ethnopharmacol. 115, 30–35.
Périco, L.L., Heredia-Vieira, S.C., Beserra, F.P., dos Santos, R.C., Weiss, M.B., Resende, F.A., Ramos, M.A.S., Bonifácio, B.V., Bauab, T.M., Varanda, E.A., Gobbi, J.I.F., da Rocha, L.R.M., Vilegas, W., Hiruma-Lima, C.A., 2015. Does the gastroprotective action of a medicinal plant ensure healing effects? An integrative study of the biological effects of Serjania marginata Casar. (Sapindaceae) in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 172, 312–324.
Sharma, O.P., Kumar, N., Singh, B., Bhat, T.It, 2012. An improved method for thin layer chromatographic analysis of saponins. Food Chem. 132, 671–674.
Shi, S.Y., Zhang, Y.P., Zhou, H.H., Huang, K.L., Jiang, X.Y., 2010. Screening and identification of radical scavengers from Neo-Taraxacum siphonanthum by online rapid screening method and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. J. Immunoassay Immunochem. 31, 233–249.
Silva, J.L.V., Carvalho, V.S., Silva, F.L., Barbosa-Filho, J.M., Rigoni, V.L.S., Nouail-hetas, V.L.A., 2012. Gastrointestinal property of Serjania caracasana (jacq.) Willd. (Sapindaceae) on rats. Pharmacologyonline 81, 22–26.
Silveira, F., Rossi, S., Fernandez, C., Gosmann, G., Schenkel, E., Ferreira, F., 2011. Alum-type adjuvant effect of non-haemolytic saponins purified from Ilex and Passiflora spp. Phytother. Res. 25, 1783–1788.
Sripathi, S.It, Gopal, P., Lalitha, P., 2011. Allantoin from the leaves of Pisonia grandis R. Br. Int. J. Pharm. Life Sci. 2, 815–817.
Sun, Y.D., Benishin, C.G., 1994. IC channel openers relax longitudinal muscle of guinea-pig ileum. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 271, 453–459.
Teixeira, J.R.M., Lapa, A.J., Souccar, C., Valle, J.R., 1984. Timbós: ichthyotoxic plants used by Brazilian Indians. J. Ethnopharmacol. 10, 311–318.
The Organisation of Economic Co-operation Development (OECD), 2001. OECD Guideline for TESTING of chemicals: 420 Acute Oral Toxicology - Fixed Dose Procedure. The Organisation of Economic Co-operation Development (OECD), pp. 1–14.
Trute, A., Gross, J., Mutschler, E., Nahrstedt, A., 1997. In vitro antispasmodic compounds of the dry extract obtained from Hedera helix. Planta Med. 63, 125–129.
Wagner, H., Bladt, S., 1996. Plant Drug Analysis: A Thin LayerChromatography Atlas, 2nd edition. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 305–327.
Walker, R., Wilson, ItA., 1979. Prostaglandins and the contractile action of bradykinin on the longitudinal muscle of rat isolated ileum. Br. J. Pharmacol. 67, 527–533.
Xavier, H.S., Mors, W.B., 1975. As saponinas tóxicas de Serjania caracasana. Cien. Cultura 27, 179.
Xie, Y., Ye, Y.P., Sun, H.X., Li, D., 2008. Contribution of the glycidic moieties to the haemolytic and adjuvant activity of platycodigenin-type saponins from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum. Vaccine 26, 3452–3460.
FLS (Ph.D. student) contributed by conducting the phytochemical laboratory work, the hemolytic evaluation and drafting the paper. JLVS contributed by conducting the pharmacological assays, teaching JMS and LSAM in the conducting of the pharmacological assays and by critical reading of the manuscript. VLAN supervised the pharmacological work and contributed to critical reading of the manuscript. MY contributed with the characterizing of many isolated secondary metabolites. PHV contributed determining the EI-HRMS of allantoin. MNE supervised the laboratory work and contributed to critical reading of the manuscript. JMBF designed the phytochemical work and contributed guiding and supporting the plant collection and the laboratory work. PRHM contributed supporting and designing the phytochemical work and the hemolytic assays, supervised the laboratory work and contributed to critical reading of the manuscript. All the authors have read the final manuscript and approved the submission.
About this article
Cite this article
Silva, F.L., da Silva, J.L.V., Silva, J.M. et al. Antispasmodic activity from Serjania caracasana fractions and their safety. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 27, 346–352 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2016.12.002
- Antispasmodic activity
- Compounds isolation
- Hemolytic assay
- Ileum rat
- Extract toxicity