The stability and the anti-ageing, skin hydrating and anti-erythema effects of a commercialized Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, Crocodylidae. oil lotion was determined. The lotion was stored at controlled conditions over six months during which several stability tests were performed. For the clinical efficacy studies lotion was applied on volar forearm skin (female volunteers) and compared to a liquid paraffin-containing reference product. Skin hydrating and anti-ageing effects were determined with a Corneometer®. Cutometer® and Visioscan®. following single (3h) and multiple applications (12 weeks). The Vapometer® and Mexameter® were utilized to determine this lotion’s anti-erythema effects on sodium lauryl sulfate irritated skin. The lotion demonstrated good stability over 6 months. The reference product increased skin hydration and decreased skin wrinkles to a larger extent than the C niloticus lotion after a single application, whereas the C. niloticus lotion decreased skin scaliness better than the reference product. During the long-term study, the reference product overall increased skin hydration more than the C. niloticus lotion, whereas C niloticus lotion increased skin elasticity to a larger extent than the reference product. C niloticus lotion increased skin wrinkles and decreased skin scaliness over 12 weeks. Compared to non-treated, irritated skin. C. niloticus lotion demonstrated some potential anti-inflammatory characteristics.
Ahn, S., Kim, S., Lee, H., Moon, S., Chang, I., 2007. Correlation between a Cutometer® and quantitative evaluation using Moire topography in age-related skin elasticity. Skin Res. Technol. 13, 280–284.
Anderson, D.R., Sweeney, D.J., Williams, TA., 2011. Statistics for Business and Economics, 11th ed. South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.
Bazin, R., Fanchon, C., 2006. Equivalence of face and volar forearm for the testing of moisturizing and firming effect of cosmetics in hydration and biomechanical studies. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 28, 453–460.
Berardesca, E., 1997. EEMCO guidance forthe assessment of stratum corneum hydration: electrical methods. Skin Res. Technol. 3, 126–132.
Berardesca, E., 2011. Factors influencing measurements. In: Fluhr, J.W. (Ed.), Practical Aspects of Cosmetic Testing. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 89–99.
Buthelezi, S., Southway, C., Govinden, U., Bodenstein, J., Du Toit, K., 2012. An investigation of the antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activities of crocodile oil. J. Ethnopharmacol. 143, 325–330.
Choi, J.W., Kwon, S.H., Huh, C.H., Park, K.C., Youn, S.W., 2013. The influences of skin visco-elasticity, hydration level and aging on the formation of wrinkles: a comprehensive and objective approach. Skin Res. Technol. 19, e349–e355.
Darlenski, R., Callaghan, T., Fluhr, J.W., 2011. Antiageing and antiwrinkle products. In: Fluhr, J.W. (Ed.), Practical Aspects of Cosmetic Testing. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 143–153.
Darlenski, R., Fluhr, J.W., 2011. Moisturizers and emollients. In: Fluhr, J.W. (Ed.), Practical Aspects of Cosmetic Testing. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 123–141.
Diridollou, S., Vabrey, V., Bersony, M., Vaillantz, L., Black, D., Lagarde, J.M., Gergoirey, J.M., Gall, Y., Patay, F., 2001. Skin ageing changes of physical properties of human skin in vivo. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 23, 353–362.
Dobrev, H.P., 2002. A study of human skin mechanical properties by means of Cutometer®. Folia Med. (Plovdiv.) 44, 5–10.
Draelos, Z., 2000. Atlas of Cosmetic Dermatology. Churchill Livingstone, New York.
Fluhr, J.W., Kao, J., Jain, M., Ahn, S.K., Feingold, K.R., Elias, P.M., 2001. Generation of free fatty acids from phospholipids regulates stratum corneum acidification and integrity. J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 44–51.
Gilchrest, B.A., 1989. Skin aging and photoaging: an overview. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 21, 610–613.
Held, E., Lund, H., Agner, T., 2001. Effect of different moisturizers on SLS-irritated human skin. Contact Dermat. 44, 229–234.
International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) Q1A (R2), http://www.ich.org/fileadmin/Public_Web_Site/ICH_Products/Guidelines/Quality/Q1A_R2/Step4/Q1A_R2_Guideline.pdf (accessed 05.15) 2003. Stability Testing of New Drug Substances and Products.
Jemec, G.B.E., Na, R., 2002. Hydration and plasticity following long-term use of a moisturizer: a single-blind study. Acta Derm. Venereol. 82, 322–324.
Kim, S.Y., Kim, S.J., Lee, J.Y., Kim, W.G., Park, W.S., Sim, Y.C., Lee, S.J., 2004. Protective effects of dietary soy isoflavones against UV-induced skin-aging in hairless mouse model. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 23, 157–162.
Kraft, J.N., Lynde, C.W., 2005. Moisturizers: what they are and a practical approach to product selection. Skin Ther. Lett. 10, 1–8.
Li, H.L., Chen, L.P., Hu, Y.H., Qin, Y., Liang, G., Xiong, Y.X., Chen, Q.X., 2012. Crocodile oil enhances cutaneous burn wound healing and reduces scar formation. Acad. Emerg. Med. 19, 265–273.
Lötter, A.P., 2009. Uses for Crocodile Oil and Crocodile Oil Containing Products (unpublished)., pp. 1–3.
Ma, W., Wlaschek, M., Tantchava-Pooa, I., Schneider, LA., Naderi, L., Razi-Wolf, Z., Schueller, J., Scharffetter-Kockanek, K., 2001. Chronological ageing and pho-toageing of the fibroblasts and the dermal connective tissue. Clin. Dermatol. 26, 592–599.
Nielsen, J.B., 2006. Natural oils affect the human skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid dose-dependently. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 98, 575–581.
Prism version 6.01 for Windows, GraphPad Software, La Jolla California USA, http://www.graphpad.com.
Ryu, H.S., Joo, Y.H., Kim, S.O., Park, K.C., Youn, S.W., 2008. Influence of age and regional differences on skin elasticity as measured by the Cutometer®. Skin Res. Technol. 14, 354–358.
Shim-Prydon, G., Camacho-Barreto, H., RIRDC publication no. 06/117, RIRDC Project no. DAQ 320A 2007. New animal products: new uses and markets for byproducts and co-products of crocodile, emu, goat, kangaroo and rabbit: a report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Australian Government: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/downloads/06-117 (accessed 02.15).
Tupker, R.A., Willis, C., Berardesca, E., Lee, C.H., Fartasch, M., Agner, T., Serup, J., 1997. Guidelines on sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) exposure test: a report from the Standardization Group of the European Society of Contact Dermatitis. Contact Dermat. 37, 53–69.
Udompataikul, M., Sripiroj, P., Palungwachira, P., 2009. An oral nutraceuti-cal containing antioxidants, minerals and glycosaminoglycans improves skin roughness and fine wrinkles. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 31, 427–435.
Wiechers, J.W., Barlow, T., 1999. Skin moisturizationand elasticity originate from at least two different mechanisms. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 21, 425–435.
This study was carried out with the financial support of the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa (Grants no.IFRR81178 and CPRR13091742482) and the Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences (Pharmacen) at the North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa. Prof Antoon Lötteris also acknowledged for his valuable input during this study. The authors also thank the crocodile and reptile park in South Africa for the generous supply of C. niloticus oil and C. niloticus oil lotion. Special thanks and acknowledgement to Mrs. Marike Cockeran (MSc Statistics), the Subject Specialist from MUSA (Medicine usage inSouth Africa), North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus who assisted with the statistical data analysis.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Venter, T., Fox, L.T., Gerber, M. et al. Physical stability and clinical efficacy of Crocodylus niloticus oil lotion. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 26, 521–529 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2016.03.011
- Crocodylus niloticus oil
- Skin hydration