Spilanthol: occurrence, extraction, chemistry and biological activities

Abstract

Spilanthol (C14H23NO, 221.339 g/mol) is a bioactive compound that is found in many different plants thatare used as traditional remedies throughout the world. It is present in Heliopsis longipes and several speciesin the genus Acmella, including A. oleracea L., also known as paracress and jambu. Its leaves and flowershave sensory properties (pungency, tingling, numbing, mouth-watering) that make it a popular spice andingredient in several Brazilian dishes. Spilanthol can exert a variety of biological and pharmacologicaleffects including analgesic, neuroprotective, antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory,antimicrobial, antilarvicidal and insecticidal activities. So, the aim of this review is to present a literaturereview on the spilanthol that describes its occurrence, chemistry, extraction and biological activities.

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Acknowledgements

The authors want to thank the Fundação Carlos Chagas de Apoio a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), CNPq, and to CAPES for scholarships and financial support.

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AFB, MGC, RES and AUOSR all contributed to the concept, liter-ature search and writing of this review article.

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Correspondence to Robert E. Smith.

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Barbosa, A.F., de Carvalhoa, M.G., Smith, R.E. et al. Spilanthol: occurrence, extraction, chemistry and biological activities. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 26, 128–133 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2015.07.024

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Keywords

  • Acmella oleracea
  • Alkamides
  • Bioactivity
  • Spilanthes oleracea L.
  • Heliopsis longipes