Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization

Abstract

Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae) is well known for its dietary and pharmaceutical potential, and the semipurified extract of guaraná shows antidepressant and panicolytic effects. However, the low solubility, bioavailability and stability of the semipurified extract limit its use as a component of pharmaceutical agents. Delivery of the semipurified extract in a microparticle form could help to optimize its stability. In this study, microparticles containing semipurified extract of guaraná were obtained by the spray-drying technique, using a combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic. The raw materials and microparticles produced were characterized by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The drug content and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. In vitro dissolution tests using flow cell dissolution apparatus, were carried out to investigate the influence of formulation parameters on the release of semipurified extract of guaraná from the microparticles. The spray-drying technique and the processing conditions selected gave satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (80–110%) and product yield (55–60%). The mean diameter of microparticles was around 4.5 μm. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity demonstrated that microparticles can protect the semipurified extract of guaraná from the effect of high temperatures during the process maintained the antioxidant capacity. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated an interaction between semipurified extract of guaraná and gum arabic: maltodextrin in the microparticles, and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that the profile curves of the microparticles are similar to the adjuvants used in drying, probably due to the higher proportion of adjuvants compared to semipurified extract of guaraná. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrate that all formulations complete dissolution within 60 min. Microencapsulation improved the technological characteristics of the powders and preserved the antioxidant properties. The study demonstrated the feasibility of producing these microparticles for a one-step process using spray drying. The composition of each formulation influenced the physical and chemical characteristics. This spray-drying technique can be used as an efficient and economical approach to produce semipurified extract of guaraná microparticles.

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Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to Dr. Janet W. Reid, JWR Associates, Trumansburg, New York, for English revision, and Financial support from Capes-Proap, Finep, CNPq, INCT if.

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TK performed the laboratory work, analyzed the data and drafted the paper. RL contributed to chromatographic analysis and discussed the results. MLB contributed to designing the study, supervised the laboratory work, and critically read the manuscript. JCPM contributed to designing the study, supervised the laboratory work, and helped to write the manuscript. All the authors have read the final manuscript and approved the submission.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to João C. P. de Mello.

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Klein, T., Longhini, R., Bruschi, M.L. et al. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 25, 292–300 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2015.03.010

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Keywords

  • Antioxidant capacity
  • Guaraná
  • Microparticles
  • Paullinia cupana
  • Spray drying
  • Thermal analysis