Microwave Assisted Extraction and a modified CEN-QuEChERS methodology were evaluated as extraction and clean up procedures for the simultaneous analysis of 42 organophosphate pesticides in yerba mate (Ilex paraguaiensis). The obtained extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame photometric detector. Linearity, recovery percentages, relative standard deviations, detection and quantification limits and matrix effects were determined according to DG-SANCO guidelines for both methods. At 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg the evaluated methods showed percentages recoveries between 70 and 120% for most of the analytes. Using Microwave Assisted Extraction methodology, 33 pesticide residues could be properly analyzed whereas only 27 could be determined with the proposed modified QuEChERS. All relative standard deviation were below 18% except for omethoate and disulfoton sulfone when evaluated by the modified QuEChERS. The limits of detection in both methodologies were 0.2 mg/kg for most of the analyzed compounds. The average detection limit for QuEChERS was 0.04 mg/kg. For 19 of the analytes determined through Microwave Assisted Extraction the lowest validated level were 0.004 mg/kg. Signal suppression/enhancement was observed for most of the pesticides, thus matrix-matched calibration curves were used for quantification. The Microwave Assisted Extraction and QuEChERS procedures studied could detect the organophosphate pesticides above the MRL fixed for “mate” by the European Union. They have been successfully applied for the determination of organophosphate pesticide residues in commercial samples and the positives were confirmed through GC–(ITD)-MS.
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The authors gratefully acknowledge the European Commission (Alfa II Programme B-Project EUROLANTRAP, No. AML/B7-311/97/0666/II0461-FA-FCD-FI).
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
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Pareja, L., Niell, S., Vryzas, Z. et al. Comparison and evaluation of two methods for the pesticide residue analysis of organophosphates in yerba mate. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 25, 98–104 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2015.02.001
- Yerba mate
- Pesticide residues