Advertisement

Mammalian Biology

, Volume 97, Issue 1, pp 88–94 | Cite as

Diet of a semiaquatic invasive mammal in northern Italy: Could it be an alarming threat to the endemic water vole?

  • Emiliano MoriEmail author
  • Giuseppe Mazza
Original investigation

Abstract

The American minkNeovison vison has been introduced to Italy for fur farms in the 1950s. Since the 1970s, free-ranging individuals are present in north-eastern Italy, where an expanding population still occurs. In our work, we aimed at assessing the seasonal diet of invasive American mink introduced to northeastern Italy. Thus, a total of 195 mink scats (N = 73, June 2007; N = 57, September 2007; N = 65, February 2008) were collected. Scats were washed and food remains isolated and classified through comparison with reference collections and atlases. Absolute and relative frequencies, as well as the estimated volume of each prey category were computed. The endemic Italian water vole Arvicola italicus represented the staple of the diet of the American mink in June (relative frequency: 20.4%, total volume in diet: 38.1%) and September (relative frequency: 22.7%, total volume in diet: 52.0%). Other small mammals, amphibians (Rana spp. and Pelophylax spp.) and the invasive red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii were mostly consumed in cold months, when water voles are not available. Differently from other study areas, wading birds and fish were rarely consumed, possibly because of their low local availability, if compared with small mammals. No law currently protects the endemic water vole, which may be furtherly threatened by the potential range expansion of invasive minks. Therefore, eradication of this alien carnivore should be recommended before local population decline of water vole become irreversible, and before minks reach populations of native riverine mustelids, i.e. the western polecat and the Eurasian otter.

Keywords

American mink Alien species Diet Fur farms Neovison vison Watervole 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aars, J., Lambin, X., Denny, R., Griffin, A., 2001. Water vole in the Scottish uplands: distribution patterns of disturbed and pristine populations ahead and behind the American mink invasion front. Anim. Conserv., 4, 187–194.Google Scholar
  2. Adamopoulou, C., Legakis, A., 2016. First account on the occurrence of selected invasive alien vertebrates in Greece. BioInv. Rec., 5, 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amori, G., Battisti, C., De Felici, S., 2009. I Mammiferi della provincia di Roma. Dallo stato delle conoscenze alla gestione e conservazione delle specie. Assessorato alle Politiche dell’Agricoltura, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, e Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”. Ente Provincia di Roma (Edizioni), Roma, Italy.Google Scholar
  4. Angelici, F.M., Luiselli, L., Rugiero, L., 2000. First note of dietary habits of American mink Mustela vison in Italy. Mammalia, 64, 253–257.Google Scholar
  5. Aquiloni, L., Tricarico, E., Gherardi, F., 2010. Crayfish in Italy: distribution, threats and management. Int. Aquat. Res., 2, 1–14.Google Scholar
  6. Baltrūnaitė, L., 2006. Diet and winter habitat use of the red fox, pine marten and raccoon dog in Dzūkija National Park, Lithuania. Acta Zool. Lithuania, 16, 46–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barreto, G.R., Rushton, S.P., Strachan, R., Macdonald, D.W., 1998. The role of habitat and mink predation in determining the status and distribution of water voles in England. Anim. Conserv. Forum, 1, 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartolommei, P., Bonesi, L., Guj, I., Monaco, A., Mortelliti, A., 2013. First report on the distribution of the American mink Neovison vison (Mammalia: Mustelidae) in central Italy. Ital. J. Zool., 80, 455–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bartoszewicz, M., Zalewski, A., 2003. American mink, Mustela vison diet and predation on waterfowl in the Slonsk Reserve, western Poland. Folia Zool., 52, 225–238.Google Scholar
  10. Bertolino, S., Genovesi, P., 2007. Semiaquatic mammals introduced into Italy: case studies in biological invasion. In: Biological Invaders in Inland Waters: Profiles, Distribution, and Threats. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 175–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertolino, S., Colangelo, P., Mori, E., Capizzi, D., 2015. Good for management, not for conservation: an overview of research, conservation and management of Italian small mammals. Hystrix, 26, 25–35.Google Scholar
  12. Blackburn, T.M., Essl, F., Evans, T., Hulme, P.E., Jeschke, J.M., Kühn, I., Kumschick, S., Markovà, Z., Mrugala, A., Nentwig, W., Pergl, J., Pysek, P., Rabitsch, W., Ricciardi, A., Richardson, D.M., Sendek, A., Vilà, M., Wilson, J.R.U., Winter, M., Genovesi, P., Bacher, S., 2014. A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts. PLoS Biol. 12, e1001850.Google Scholar
  13. Bleeker, W., Schmitz, U., Ristow, M., 2007. Interspecific hybridisation between alien and native plant species in Germany and its consequences for native biodiversity. Biol. Conserv., 137, 248–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bocci, A., Lovari, S., Khan, M.Z., Mori, E., 2017. Sympatric snow leopard and Tibetan wolves: coexistence of large carnivores with human-driven potential competition. Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 63, 92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bon, M., 2017. Nuovo Atlante dei Mammiferi del Veneto. WBA Monographs Editions, Verona, Italy.Google Scholar
  16. Bonesi, L., Macdonald, D.W., 2004. Impact of released Eurasian otters on a population of American mink: a test using an experimental approach. Oikos, 106, 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bonesi, L., Chanin, P., Macdonald, D.W., 2004. Competition between Eurasian otter Lutra lutra and American mink Mustela vison probed by niche shift. Oikos, 106, 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bonesi, L., Palazon, S., 2007. The American mink in Europe: status, impacts, and control. Biol. Conserv., 134, 470–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bonesi, L., Rushton, S.P., Macdonald, D.W., 2007. Trapping for mink control and water vole survival: identifying key criteria using a spatially explicit individual based model. Biol. Conserv., 136, 636–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Branquart, E., 2013. Risk Analysis of the American Mink Neovison vison (Schreber 1777). Risk Analysis Report of Non-Native Organisms in Belgium. Cellule interdépartementale sur les Espèces invasives (CiEi), DGO3, SPW / Editions, pp. 30.Google Scholar
  21. Brzezinski, M., 2006. Food habits of the American mink Mustela vison in the Mazurian Lakeland, Northeasten Poland. Mamm. Biol., 73, 177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brzezinski, M., Jedlikowski, J., Komar, E., 2019. Space use, habitat selection and daily activity of water voles Arvicola amphibius co-occurring with the invasive American mink Neovison vison. Folia Zool., 68, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bueno, F., 1996. Competition between American mink Mustela vison and otter Lutra lutra during winter. Acta Theriol., 41, 149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Capizzi, D., Mortelliti, A., Amori, G., Colangelo, P., Rondinini, C., 2012. Mammiferi del Lazio. Ecologia, distribuzione e conservazione. Agenzia Regionale dei Parchi - Regione Lazio (Edizioni), Roma, Italy.Google Scholar
  25. Capizzi, D., Monaco, A., Genovesi, P., Scalera, R., Carnevali, L., 2018. Impact of alien mammals on human health. In: Mazza, G., Tricarico, E. (Eds.), Invasive Species and Human Health. CPI Group, Preston (UK), pp. 130–150, CABI Invasives Series 10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Castiglia, R., Aloise, G., Amori, G., Annesi, F., Bertolino, S., Capizzi, D., Mori, E., Colangelo, P., 2016. The Italian peninsula hosts a divergent mtDNA lineage of the water vole, Arvicola amphibius s.l., including fossorial and aquatic ecotypes. Hystrix, 27, 99–103.Google Scholar
  27. Chanin, P.R.F., Linn, I.J., 1979. Diet of feral mink (Mustela vison) in south-west Britain. J. Zool. (Lond.), 192, 205–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ciampalini, B., Lovari, S., 1985. Food habits and trophic niche overlap of the badger (Meles meles L.) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes L) in a Mediterranean costal area. Mamm. Biol., 50, 226–234.Google Scholar
  29. Cohen, A.N., Carlton, J.T., 1998. Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary. Science, 279, 555–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dettori, E.E., Balestrieri, A., Ruiu, A., Capelli, E., Prigioni, C., Zapata-Perez, V.M., Bruno, C., Robledano-Aymerich, F., 2016. Recent spread of invasive American mink Neovison vison in Sardinia. In: Atti del III Congresso Nazionale Fauna Problematica (Cesena, 24–26 Novembre 2016)., pp. 88.Google Scholar
  31. Doherty, T.S., Davis, R.A., van Etten, E.J., Algar, D., Collier, N., Dickman, CR., Edwards, G., Masters, P., Palmer, R., Robinson, S., 2015. A continental-scale analysis of feral cat diet in Australia. J. Biogeogr., 42, 964–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Duby, R.T., Travis, H.F., 1972. Photoperiodic control of furgrowth and reproduction in the mink (Mustela vison). J. Exp. Zool., 182, 217–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferreras, P., Macdonald, D.W., 1999. The impact of American mink Mustela vison on water birds in the upper Thames. J. Appl. Ecol., 36, 701–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fasola, L., Chehèbar, C., Macdonald, D.W., Porro, G., Cassini, M.H., 2009. Do alien North American mink compete for resources with native South American river otter in Argentinean Patagonia? J. Zool. (Lond.), 277, 187–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fasola, L., Muzio, J., Chehèbar, C., Cassini, M.H., Macdonald, D.W., 2010. Range expansion and prey use of American mink in Argentinean Patagonia: dilemmas for conservation. Eur.J. Wildl. Res., 57, 283–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fischer, D., Pavluvcík, P., Sedlácek, F., Sálek, M., 2009. Predation of the alien American mink, Mustela vison on native crayfish in middle-sized streams in central and western Bohemia. Folia Zool., 58, 45–56.Google Scholar
  37. Garcia-Serrano, H., Sans, F.X., Escarré, J., 2007. Interspecific competition between alien and native congeneric species. Acta Oecol., 31, 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gerell, R., 1967. Food selection in relation to habitat in mink (Mustela vison Schreber) in Sweden. Oikos, 18, 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gurnell, J., Wauters, LA., Lurz, P.W., Tosi, G., 2004. Alien species and interspecific competition: effects of introduced eastern grey squirrels on red squirrel population dynamics. J. Anim. Ecol., 73, 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hammershøj, M., 2004. Population Ecology of Free-Ranging American Mink Mustela vison in Denmark. Ministry of the Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  41. Harrington, LA., Harrington, A.L., Yamaguchi, N., Thom, M.D., Ferreras, P., Windham, T.R., Macdonald, D.W., 2009. The impact of native competitors on an alien invasive: temporal niche shifts to avoid interspecific aggression. Ecology, 90, 1207–1216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hass, C.C., 2009. Competition and coexistence in sympatric bobcats and pumas. J. Zool. (Lond.), 278, 174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hisano, M., Newman, C., Deguchi, S., Kaneko, Y., 2019. Thermal forest zone explains regional variations in the diet composition of the Japanese marten (Martes melampus). Mamm. Biol., 95, 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ibarra, J.T., Fasola, L., Macdonald, D.W., Rozzi, R., Bonacic, C., 2008. Invasive American mink Mustela vison in wetlands of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, southern Chile: what are they eating? Oryx, 43, 87–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Iordan, F., Rushton, S.P., Macdonald, D.W., Bonesi, L., 2012. Predicting the spread of feral populations of the American mink in Italy: is it too late for eradication? Biol. Inv., 9, 1895–1908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Iordan, F., Lapini, L., Pavanello, M., Polednik, P., Rieppi, C., 2016. Evidence for naturalization of the American mink (Neovison vison) in Friuli Venezia-Giulia, NE Italy. Mammalia, 81, 91–94.Google Scholar
  47. Jefferies, D.J., Morris, P.A., Mulleneux, J.E., 1989. An enquiry intothe changing status of the water vole Arvicola terrestris in Britain. Mamm. Rev., 19, 111–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson, P.T., Olden, J.D., Vander Zanden, M.J., 2008. Dam invaders: impoundments facilitate biological invasions into freshwaters. Front. Ecol. Environ., 6, 357–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kauhala, K., Kowalczyk, R., 2011. Invasion of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides in Europe: history of colonization, features behind its success, and threats to native fauna. Curr. Zool., 57, 584–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Khan, U., Lovari, S., Ali Shah, S., Ferretti, F., 2018. Predator, prey and humans in a mountainous area: loss of biological diversity leads to trouble. Biodivers. Conserv., 27, 2795–2813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Krawczyk, A.J., Bogdziewicz, M., Czyz, M.J., 2013. Diet of the American mink Neovison vison in an agricultural landscape in western Poland. Folia Zool., 62, 304–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Krebs, C.J., 1999. Ecological Methodology, second edition. Addison Wesley Longman, Menlo Park, California, USA.Google Scholar
  53. Kruuk, H., 1989. The Social Badger: Ecology and Behaviour of Group Living Carnivore (Meles meles). Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  54. Lambin, X., Fazey, I., Sansom, J., Dallas, J., Stewart, W., Piertney, S., Palmer, S.C.F., Bacon, P.J., Webb, A., Available at: 1998. Aberdeenshire Water Vole Survey: The Distribution of Isolated Water Vole Populations in the Upper Catchments of the Rivers Dee and Don. Scottisch Natural Heritage https://doi.org/www.snh.gov.uk/ publications-data-and-research/publications/search-the-catalogue/ publication-detail/?id=1252.Google Scholar
  55. Lapini, L., 1991. Il visone americano nel Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Fauna, 2, 44–49.Google Scholar
  56. Lerone, L., 2013. Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) in Central Italy: Non-Invasive Methods to Assess Status and Conservation of a Threatened Population. Ph. D. Dissertation, Scuola Dottorale in Biologia, Sezione Biodiversità Ed Analisi Degli Ecosistemi, Ciclo XXV. Università degli Studi RomaTre, Roma, Italy.Google Scholar
  57. Lode, T., 1993. Diet composition and habitat use of sympatric polecat and American mink in western France. Acta Theriol., 38, 161–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Long, J.L., 2003. Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Macdonald, D.W., Sidorovich, V.E., Anisomova, E.I., Sidorovich, N.V., Johnson, P.J., 2002. The impact of American mink Mustela vison and European mink Mustela lutreola on water voles Arvicola terrestris in Belarus. Ecography, 25, 295–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. MaCdonald, D.W., Harrington, LA., 2003. The American mink: the triumph and tragedy of adaptation out of context. N. Zeal. J., 30, 421–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Maran, T., Kruuk, H., Macdonald, D.W., Polma, M., 1998. Diet of two species of mink in Estonia: displacement of Mustela lutreola by M. vison. J. Zool. (Lond.), 245, 218–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marassi, M., Biancardi, CM., 2002. Diet of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in an area of the Italian Prealps. Hystrix, 13, 19–28.Google Scholar
  63. Mazza, G., Tricarico, E., Genovesi, P., Gherardi, F., 2014. Biological invaders are threats to human health: an overview. Ethol. Ecol. Evol., 26, 112–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mazza, G., Tricarico, E., 2018. Invasive species and human health. In: CABI Invasives Series 10. CPI Group, Preston (UK).Google Scholar
  65. Melero, Y., Palazòn, S., Bonesi, L., Gonzàlez, J., 2009. Feeding habits of three sympatric mammals in NE Spain: the American mink, the spotted genet, and the Eurasian otter. Acta Theriol., 53, 263–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Melero, Y., Plaza, M., Santulli, G., Saavedra, D., Gosalbez, J., Ruiz-Olmo, J., Palazón, S., 2012. Evaluating the effect of American mink, an alien invasive species, on the abundance of a native community: is coexistence possible? Biodivers. Conserv., 21, 1795–1809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Melero, Y., Palazón, S., Lambin, X., 2014. Invasive crayfish reduce food limitation of alien American mink and increase their resilience to control. Oecology, 174, 427–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Moore, N.P., Roy, S.S., Helyar, A., 2003. Mink (Mustela vison) eradication to protect ground-nesting birds in the Western Isles, Scotland, United Kingdom. N. Z. J. Zool., 30, 443–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mori, E., Amerini, R., Mazza, G., Bertolino, S., Battiston, R., Sforzi, A., Menchetti, M., 2016. Alien shades of grey: new occurrences and relevant spread of Sciurus carolinensis in Italy. Eur.J. Ecol., 2, 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mori, E., Bozzi, R., Laurenzi, A., 2017. Feeding habits of the crested porcupine Hystrix cristata L. 1758 (Mammalia, Rodentia) in a Mediterranean area of Central Italy. Eur. Zool. J., 84, 261–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Muñoz-Fuentes, V., Vilà, C., Green, A.J., Negro, J.J., Sorenson, A.D., 2007. Hybridization between white-headed ducks and introduced ruddy ducks in Spain. Mol. Ecol., 16, 629–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nordström, M., Laine, J., Ahola, M., Korpimäki, E., 2004. Reduced nest defence intensity and improved breeding success in terns as responses to removal of non-native American mink. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 55, 454–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Paglianti, A., Gherardi, F., 2004. Combined effects of temperature and diet on growth and survival of young-of-year crayfish: a comparison between indigenous and invasive species. J. Crust. Biol., 24, 140–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pejchar, L., Mooney, H.A., 2009. Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends Ecol. Evol., 24, 497–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Põdra, M., Gómez, A., 2018. Rapid expansion of the American mink poses a serious threat to the European mink in Spain. Mammalia, 82, 580–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Previtali, A., Cassini, M.H., Macdonald, D.W., 1998. Habitat use and diet of the American mink (Mustela vison) in Argentinean Patagonia. J. Zool. (Lond.), 246, 482–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Roy, S., Reid, N., McDonald, R.A., 2009. A Review of Mink Predation and Control in Ireland. Irish Wildlife Manuals 40. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.Google Scholar
  78. Rushton, S.P., Barreto, G.W., Cormack, R.M., Macdonald, D.W., Fuller, R., 2000. Modelling the effects of mink and habitat fragmentation on the water vole. J. Appl. Ecol., 37, 475–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Scaravelli, D., 1998. Popolazione rinselvatichita di Mustela vison Schreber, 1777 nella provincia di Forlì-Cesena (Italia Settentrionale). Quad. Studi Not. Sto. Nat. Romagna, 9, 59–63.Google Scholar
  80. Schüttler, E., Càrcamo, J., Rozzi, R., 2008. Diet of the American mink Mustela vison and its potential impact on the native fauna of Navarino Island, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 81, 585–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shimatani, Y., Fukue, Y., Kishimoto, R., Masuda, R., 2010. Genetic variation and population structure of the feral American mink (Neovison vison) in Nagano, Japan, revealed by microsatellite analysis. Mamm. Study, 35, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sogliani, D., Mori, E., 2019. “The Fox and the Cat”: sometimes they do not agree. Mamm. Biol., 95, 150–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Strachan, C., Jefferies, D.J., 1996. An assessment of the diet of the feral American mink Mustela vison from scats collected in areas where water voles Arvicola terrestris occur. Am. Nat., 121, 73–81.Google Scholar
  84. Strayer, D.L., 2010. Alien species in fresh waters: ecological effects, interactions with other stressors, and prospects forthe future. Freshw. Biol., 55, 152–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Teerink, B.J., 1991. Hair of West-European Mammals. Cambridge University Press Editions, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  86. Turbè, A., Strubbe, D., Mori, E., Carrete, M., Chiron, F., Clergeau, P., Gonzalez-Moreno, P., Le Louarn, M., Luna, A., Menchetti, M., Nentwig, W., Parau, L.G., Postigo, J.L., Rabitsch, W., Senar, J.C., Tollington, S., Vanderhoeven, S., Weiserbs, A., Shwartz, A., 2017. Assessing the assessments: evaluation of four impact assessment protocols for invasive alien species. Divers. Distrib., 23, 297–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Valenzuela, A.E., Rey, A.R., Fasola, L., Samaniego, R.A.S., Schiavini, A., 2013. Trophic ecology of a top predator colonizing the southern extreme of South America: feeding habits of invasive American mink (Neovison vison) in Tierradel Fuego. Mamm. Biol., 78, 104–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vannini, A., Bruni, G., Ricciardi, G., Platania, L., Mori, E., Tricarico, E., 2018. Gambusia holbrooki the “tadpolefish”: the impact of its predatory behaviour on four protected species of European amphibians. Aquat. Conserv., 28, 476–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vitousek, P.M., D’Antonio, CM., Loope, L.L., Rejmanek, M., Westbrooks, R., 1997. Introduced species: a significant component of human-caused global change. N. Z.J. Ecol., 1, 1–16.Google Scholar
  90. Woodroffe, G.L., Lawton, J.H., Davidson, W.L., 1990. The impact of feral mink Mustela vison on water voles Arvicola terrestris in the North Yorkshire Moors National Park. Biol. Conserv., 51, 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zschille, J., Stier, N., Roth, M., Mayer, R., 2014. Feeding habits of invasive American mink (Neovison vison) in northern Germany - potential implications for fishery and waterfowls. Acta Theriol., 59, 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze della VitaUniversità degli Studi di SienaSienaItaly
  2. 2.CREA Research Centre for Plant Protection and CertificationCascine del Riccio (Firenze)Italy

Personalised recommendations