Advertisement

Mammalian Biology

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 37–44 | Cite as

Spatial organization in wolves Canis lupus recolonizing north-west Poland: Large territories at low population density

  • Robert W. MysłajekEmail author
  • Maciej Tracz
  • Magdalena Tracz
  • Patrycja Tomczak
  • Maciej Szewczyk
  • Natalia Niedźwiecka
  • Sabina Nowak
Original investigation

Abstract

Monitoring of the wolf Canis lupus is a demanding task as it lives in low densities, utilizes vast home ranges and disperses over large areas. These factors make obtaining accurate data about population parameters over the whole distribution area of the species impossible. Thus detailed local studies on socio-spatial organization are essential to calibrate information obtained over a larger area. We applied GPS/GSM telemetry, non-invasive genetic sampling, year-round tracking, camera trapping and howling stimulations to determine the number of family groups, population density and home-range sizes of wolves in the Drawa Forest (DF, western Poland, 2500 km2), an area recently recolonized by the species. Home ranges of three collared male wolves ranged from 321.8 to 420.6 km2 (MCP 100%) and from 187.5 to 277.5 km2 (Kernel 95%), but core areas had a size of 30.5–84.7 km2 (MCP50%) and 35.0–88.8 km2 (Kernel 50%). Mean near neighbour distance between centres of 6 tracked pack homesites was 15.3 km. The number of wolves in DF increased from 14 individuals in 2013/2014 to 30 in 2016/2017. The annual rate of increase varied from 43% in 2014/2015 to 7% in the final year. Population density for the whole study area was relatively low (1.2indiv./100km2 in 2016/2017), but densities within territories of two packs studied with telemetry were 1.9 and 1.5indiv./100km2. Mean pack size varied between 3.5 and 5.6 individuals, with the largest pack comprising 8 wolves. Mean number of pups observed in summers (June–August) was 4.5. Differences in home range sizes between wolves in western and eastern Poland indicate that results of regional studies cannot be freely extrapolated despite close genetic relationships. Thus, decisions related to management of wolf habitats should be based on intensive local studies.

Keywords

Wolf recovery Spatial organization GPS/GSM telemetry Central European wolf population 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersen, L.W., Harms, V., Caniglia, R., Czarnomska, S.D., Fabbri, E., Jędrzejewska, B., Kluth, G., Madsen, A.B., Nowak, C., Pertoldi, C., Randi, E., Reinhardt, I., Stronen, A.V., 2015. Long-distance dispersal of a wolf, Canis lupus, in northwestern Europe. Mammal Res. 60, 163–168.Google Scholar
  2. Ansorge, H., Kluth, G., Hahne, S., 2006. Feeding ecology of wolves Canis lupus returning to Germany. Acta Theriol. 51, 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ballard, W.B., Edwards, M., Fancy, S.G., Boe, S., Krausman, P.R., 1998. Comparison of VHF and satellite telemetry for estimating sizes of wolf territories in northwest Alaska. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 26, 823–829.Google Scholar
  4. Barja, I., de Miguel, F.J., Bárcena, F., 2004. The importance of crossroads in faecal marking behaviour of the wolves (Canis lupus). Naturwissenschaften 91, 489–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blanco, J.C., Cortéz, Y., 2007. Dispersal patterns, social structure and mortality of wolves living in agricultural habitats in Spain. J. Zool. 273, 114–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanco, J.C., Cortéz, Y., Virgós, E., 2005. Wolf response to two kinds of barriers in an agricultural habitat in Spain. Can. J. Zool. 83, 312–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bojarska, K., Kwiatkowska, M., Skórka, P., Gula, R., Theuerkauf, J., Okarma, H., 2017. Anthropogenic environmental traps: where do wolves kill their prey in a commercial forest? For. Ecol. Manag. 397, 117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borowik, T., Cornulier, T., Jędrzejewska, B., 2013. Environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland. Acta Theriol. 58, 403–413.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Breitenmoser, U., Breitenmoser-Würsten, Ch., von Arx, M., Zimmermann, F., Ryser, A., Angst, Ch., Molinari-Jobin, A., Molinari, P., Linnell, J., Siegenthaler, A., Weber, J.M., 2006. Guidelines for the Monitoring of Lynx. KORA Bericht Nr. 33 e.Google Scholar
  10. Chapron, G., Kaczensky, P., Linnell, J.D.C., von Arx, M., Huber, D., Andrén, H., López-Bao, J.V., Adamec, M., Álvares, F., Anders, O., Balčiauskas, L., Balys, V., Bedő, P., Bego, F., Blanco, J.C., Breitenmoser, U., Brøseth, H., Bufka, L., Bunikyte, R., Ciucci, P., Dutsov, A., Engleder, T., Fuxjäger, C., Groff, C., Holmala, K., Hoxha, B., Iliopoulos, Y., Ionescu, O., Jeremić,J., Jerina, K., Kluth, G., Knauer, F., Kojola, I., Kos, I., Krofel, M., Kubala, J., Kunovac, S., Kusak, J., Kutal, M., Liberg, O., Majić, A., Männil, P., Manz, R., Marboutin, E., Marucco, F., Melovski, D., Mersini, K., Mertzanis, Y., Mysłajek, R.W., Nowak, S., Odden, J., Ozolins,J., Palomero, G., Paunović, M., Persson, J., Potočnik, H., Quenette, P.Y., Rauer, G., Reinhardt, I., Rigg, R., Ryser, A., Salvatori, V., Skrbinšek, T., Stojanov, A., Swenson, J.E., Szemethy, L., Trajçe, A., Tsingarska-Sedefcheva, E., Váňa, M., Veeroja, R., Wabakken, P., Wölfl, M., Wölfl, S., Zimmermann, F., Zlatanova, D., Boitani, L., 2014. Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes. Science 346, 1517–1519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ciucci, P., Boitani, L., Francisci, F., Andreoli, G., 1997. Home range, activity and movements of a wolf pack in central Italy. J. Zool. 243, 803–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Czarnomska, S.D., Jędrzejewska, B., Borowik, T., Niedziałkowska, M., Stronen, A.V., Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., Okarma, H., Konopinski, M., Pilot, M., Smietana, W., Caniglia, R., Fabbri, E., Randi, E., Pertoldi, C., Jędrzejewski, W., 2013. Concordant mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA structuring between Polish lowland and Carpathian Mountain wolves. Conserv. Genet. 14, 573–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davis, J.M., Stamps, J.A., 2004. The effect of natal experience on habitat preferences. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19, 411–416.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. de Groot, G.A., Nowak, C., Skrbinsek, T., Andersen, L.W., Aspi, J., Fumagali, L., Godinho, R., Harms, V., Jansman, H.A.H., Liberg, O., Marucco, F., Mysłajek, R.W., Nowak, S., Pilot, M., Randi, E., Reinhardt, I., Śmietana, W., Szewczyk, M., Taberlet, P., Vilá, C., Muñoz-Fuentes, V., 2016. Decades of population genetic research call for harmonization of molecular markers: the grey wolf, Canis lupus, as a case study. Mammal Rev. 46, 44–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diserens, T.A., Borowik, T., Nowak, S., Szewczyk, M., Niedzwiecka, N., Mysłajek, R.W., 2017. Deficiencies in Natura 2000 for protecting recovering large carnivores: a spotlight on the wolf Canis lupus in Poland. PLoS One 12 (9).Google Scholar
  16. Duchamp, C., Boyer, J., Briaudet, P.E., Leonard, Y., Moris, P., Bataille, A., Dahier, T., Delacour, G., Millisher, G., Miquel, C., Poillot, C., Marboutin, E., 2012. A dual frame survey to assess time- and space-related changes of the colonizing wolf population in France. Hystrix It. J. Mammal. 23, 14–28.Google Scholar
  17. Duffield, J.W., Patterson, D.A., Neher, C.J., 2008. Wolf recovery in Yellowstone Park visitor attitudes, expenditures, and economic impacts. Yellowstone Sci. 16, 20–25.Google Scholar
  18. Epstein, Y., López-Bao, J.V., Chapron, C., 2016. A legal-ecological understanding of favourable conservation status for species in Europe. Conserv. Lett. 9, 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fechter, D., Storch, I., 2014. How many wolves (Canis lupus) fit into Germany? The role of assumptions in predictive rule-based habitat models for habitat generalists. PLoS One 9 (7).Google Scholar
  20. Francisco, L.V., Langston, A.A., Mellersh, C.S., Neal, C.L., Ostrander, E.A., 1996. A class of highly polymorphic tetranucleotide repeats for canine genetic mappingMamm. Genom 7, 359–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fredholm, M., Winterø, A.K., 1995. Variation of short tandem repeats within and between species belonging to the Canidae family. Mamm. Genome 6, 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fuller, T.K., Mech, L.D., Cochrane, J.F., 2003. Wolf population dynamics. In: Mech, L.D., Boitani, L. (Eds.), Wolves: Behaviour, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago University Press, Chicago and London, pp. 161–191.Google Scholar
  23. Gipson, P.S., Ballard, W.B., Nowak, R.M., Mech, L.D., 2000. Accuracy and precision of estimating age of gray wolves by tooth wear. J. Wildl. Manag. 64, 752–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gurarie, E., Suutarinen, J., Kojola, I., Ovaskainen, O., 2011. Summer movements, predation and habitat use of wolves in human modified boreal forests. Oecologia 165, 891–903.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Højberg, P.L., Nielsen, M.R., Jacobsen, J.B., 2017. Fear, economic consequences, hunting competition, and distrust of authorities determine preferences for illegal lethal actions against gray wolves (Canis lupus): a choice experiment among landowners in Jutland, Denmark. Crime Law Soc. Change 67, 461–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hayes, R.D., Harestad, A.S., 2000. Demography of a recovering wolf population in the Yukon. Can. J. Zool. 78, 36–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Huck, M., Jędrzejewski, W., Borowik, T., Miłosz-Cielma, M., Schmidt, K., Jędrzejewska, B., Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., 2010. Habitat suitability, corridors and dispersal barriers for large carnivores in Poland. Acta Theriol. 55, 177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huck, M., Jędrzejewski, W., Borowik, T., Jędrzejewska, B., Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., 2011. Analyses of least cost paths for determining effects of habitat types on landscape permeability: wolves in Poland. Acta Theriol. 56, 91–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hulva, P., Černá Bolfíková, B., Woznicová, V., Jindřichová, M., Benešová, M., Mysłajek, R.W., Nowak, S., Szewczyk, M., Niedźwiecka, N., Figura, M., Hájková, A., Sándor, A.D., Zyka, V., Romportl, D., Kutal, M., Find’o, S., Antal, V., 2018. Wolves at the crossroad: fission-fusion range biogeography in the Western Carpathians and Central Europe. Divers. Distrib. 24, 179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jędrzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Theuerkauf, J., Jędrzejewska, B., Okarma, H., 2001. Daily movements and terriotory use by radio-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in Białowieza Primeval Forest in Poland. Can. J. Zool. 79, 1993–2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jędrzejewski, W., Nowak, S., Schmidt, K., Jędrzejewska, B., 2002. The wolf and the lynx in Poland - results of a census conducted in 2001. Kosmos 51, 491–499, in Polish with English summary.Google Scholar
  32. Jędrzejewski, W., Branicki, W., Veit, C., Medugorac, I., Pilot, M., Bunevich, A.N., Jędrzejewska, B., Schmidt, K., Theuerkauf, J., Okarma, H., Gula, R., Szymura, L., Förster, M., 2005. Genetic diversity and relatedness within packs in an intensely hunted population of wolves Canis lupus. Acta Theriol. 50, 1–22.Google Scholar
  33. Jędrzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Theuerkauf, J., Jędrzejewska, B., Kowalczyk, R., 2007. Territory size of wolves Canis lupus: linking local (Białowieza Primeval Forest, Poland) and Holarctic-scale patterns. Ecography 30, 66–76.Google Scholar
  34. Jędrzejewski, W., Jędrzejewska, B., Zawadzka, B., Borowik, T., Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., 2008. Habitat suitability model for Polish wolves Canis lupus based on long-term national census. Anim. Conserv. 11, 377–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jędrzejewski, W., Niedziałkowska, M., Hayward, M.W., Goszczyński, J., Jędrzejewska, B., Borowik, T., Bartoń, K.A., Nowak, S., Harmuszkiewicz, J., Juszczyk, A., Kałamarz, T., Kloch, A., Koniuch, J., Kotiuk, K., Mysłajek, R.W., Nędzynska, M., Olczyk, A., Teleon, M., Wojtulewicz, M., 2012. Prey choice and diet of wolves related to ungulate communities and wolf subpopulations in Poland. J. Mammal. 93, 1480–1492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jansson, E., Ruokonen, M., Kojola, I., Aspi, J., 2012. Rise and fall of a wolf population: genetic diversity and structure during recovery, rapid expansion and drastic decline. Mol. Ecol. 21, 5178–5193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Joslin, P.W.B., 1967. Movements and home sites of timber wolves in Algonquin Park. Am. Zool. 7, 279–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaartinen, S., Kojola, I., Colpaert, A., 2005. Finnish wolves avoid roads and settlements. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 42, 523–532.Google Scholar
  39. Kalinowski, S.T., Taper, M.L., Marshall, T.C., 2007. Revising how the computer program CERVUS accommodates genotyping error increases success in paternity assignment. Mol. Ecol. 16, 1099–1106.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Kenward, R.E., Casey, N.M., Walls, S.S., South, A.B., 2014. Ranges 9: Forthe Analysis of Tracking and Location Data. Online Manual. Anatrack Ltd., Wareham, UK, Available at https://doi.org/www.anatrack.com.Google Scholar
  41. Kenward, R.E., 2001. A Manual for Wildlife Radiotracking. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  42. Konovalov, D.A., Manning, C., Henshaw, M.T., 2004. KINGROUP: a program for pedigree relationship reconstruction and kin group assignments using genetic markers. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4, 779–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kuijper, D.P.J., de Kleine, C., Churski, M., van Hooft, P., Bubnicki, J., Jędrzejewska, B., 2013. Landscape of fear in Europe: wolves affect spatial patterns of ungulate browsing in Białowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Ecography 36, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kusak, J., Majić Skrbinšek, A., Huber, D., 2005. Home ranges, movements, and activity of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Dalmatian part of Dinarids, Croatia. Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 51, 254–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lesniak, I., Franz, M., Heckmann, I., Greenwood, A.D., Hofer, H., Krone, O., 2017a. Surrogate hosts: hunting dogs and recolonizing grey wolves share their endoparasites. Int. J. Parasitol. Parasites Wildl. 6, 278–286.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Lesniak, I., Heckmann, I., Heitlinger, E., Szentiks, C.A., Nowak, C., Harms, V., Jarusch, A., Reinhard, I., Kluth, G., Hofer, H., Krone, O., 2017b. Population expansion and individual age affect endoparasite richness and diversity in a recolonising large carnivore population. Sci. Rep. 7, 41730.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Liberg, O., Aronson, Å., Sand, H., Wabakken, P., Maartmann, E., Svensson, L., 2012. Monitoring of wolves in Scandinavia. Hystrix It. J. Mammal. 23, 29–34.Google Scholar
  48. Linnell, J., Salvatori, V., Boitani, L., 2008. Guidelines for Population Level Management Plans for Large Carnivores in Europe. A Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe Report Prepared forthe European Commission, Available at https://doi.org/ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/conservation/species/carnivores/pdf/guidelines_for_population_level_management.pdf.Google Scholar
  49. Llaneza, L., Ordíz, A., Palacios, V., Uzal, A., 2005. Monitoring wolf populations using howling points combined with sign survey transects. Wildl. Biol. Pract. 1, 108–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Llaneza, L., López-Bao, J.V., Sazatornil, V., 2012. Insights into wolf presence in human-dominated landscapes: the relative role of food availability, humans and landscape attributes. Divers. Distrib. 18, 459–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Llaneza, L., García, E.J., López-Bao, J.V., 2014. Intensity of territorial marking predicts wolf reproduction: implications for wolf monitoring. PLoS One 9 (3).Google Scholar
  52. Mattisson, J., Sand, H., Wabakken, P., Gervasi, V., Liberg, O., Linnell, J.D.C., Rauset, G.R., Pedersen, H.C., 2013. Home range size variation in a recovering wolf population: evaluating the effect of environmental, demographic, and social factors. Oecologia 173, 813–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Merrill, S.B., 2000. Road densities and gray wolf, Canis lupus, habitat suitability: an exception. Can. Field Nat. 114, 312–313.Google Scholar
  54. Mikusińska, A., Zawadzka, B., Samojlik, T., Jędrzejewska, B., Mikusiński, G., 2013. Quantifying landscape change during the last two centuries in Białowieza Primeval Forest. Appl.Veg. Sci. 16, 217–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Miller, B.J., Harlow, H.J., Harlow, T.S., Biggins, D., Ripple, W.J., 2012. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals. Can. J. Zool. 90, 70–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Musiani, M., Leonard, J.A., Cluff, H.D., Gates, C.C., Mariani, S., Paquet, P.C., Vilà, C., Wayne, R.K., 2007. Differentiation of tundra and boreal coniferous forest wolves: genetics: coat colour and association with migratory caribou. Mol. Ecol. 16, 4149–4170.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Mysłajek, R.W., Nowak, S., 2015. Not an easy road to success: the history of exploitation and restoration of the wolf population in Poland after World War Two. In: Masius, M., Sprenger, J. (Eds.), Fairytaile in Question: Historical Interactions Between Humans and Wolves. White Horse Press, Cambridge, pp. 247–258.Google Scholar
  58. Neff, M.W., Broman, K.W., Mellersh, C.S., Ray, K., Acland, G.M., Aruirre, G.D., Ziegle, J.S., Ostrander, E.A., Rine, J., 1999. A second-generation linkage map of the domestic dog, Canis familiaris. Genetics 151, 803–820.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., 2016. Wolf recovery and population dynamics in Western Poland, 2001–2012. Mammal Res. 61, 83–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., 2017. Response of the wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) population to various management regimes at the edge of its distribution range in Western Poland, 1951–2012. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res. 15 (3), 187–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nowak, S., Jędrzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Theuerkauf, J., Mysłajek, R.W., Jędrzejewska, B., 2007. Howling activity of free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) in the Białowieza Primeval Forest and the Western Beskidy Mountains (Poland). J. Ethol. 25, 231–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., Jędrzejewska, B., 2008. Density and demography of wolf Canis lupus population in the western-most part of the Polish Carpathian Mountains, 1996–2003. Folia Zool. 57, 392–402.Google Scholar
  63. Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., Kłosinska, A., Gabryś, G., 2011. Diet and prey selection of wolves Canis lupus recolonising Western and Central Poland. Mammal. Biol. 76, 709–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nowak, S., Kasprzak, A., Mysłajek, R.W., Tomczak, P., 2013. Records of the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in the Notecka forest. Przegl. Przyr. 24, 84–86, in Polish with English summary.Google Scholar
  65. Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., Tomczak, P., Szewczyk, M., Borowik, T., Jędrzejewska, B., 2017. Sedentary but not dispersing wolves Canis lupus recolonising western Poland (2001–2016) conform to the predictions of a habitat suitability model. Divers. Distrib. 23, 1231–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Okarma, H., Jędrzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Śnieżko, S., Bunevich, A.N., Jędrzejewska, B., 1998. Home ranges of wolves in Białowieza Primeval Forest, Poland, compared with other Eurasian populations. J. Mammal. 79, 842–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ordiz, A., Milleret, C., Kindberg, J., Månsson, J., Wabakken, P., Swenson, J.E., Sand, H., 2015. Wolves, people, and brown bears influence the expansion of the recolonizing wolf population in Scandinavia. Ecosphere 6, 284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pilot, M., Jedrzejewski, W., Branicki, W., Sidorovich, V.E., Jedrzejewska, B., Stachura, K., Funk, S.M., 2006. Ecological factors influence population genetic structure of European grey wolves. Mol. Ecol. 15, 4533–4553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Reinhardt, I., Kluth, G., Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., 2013. A Review of Wolf Management in Poland and Germany with Recommendations for Future Transboundary Collaboration. BfN-Skripten 356. Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn.Google Scholar
  70. Reinhardt, I., Kluth, G., Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., 2015. Standards forthe Monitoring of the Central European Wolf Population in Germany and Poland. BfN-Skripten 398. Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn.Google Scholar
  71. Rich, L.N., Mitchell, M.S., Gude, J.A., Sime, C.A., 2012. Anthropogenic mortality, intraspecific competition, and prey availability influence territory sizes of wolves in Montana. J. Mammal. 93, 722–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ripple, W.J., Estes, J.A., Beschta, R.L., Wilmers, C.C., Ritchie, E.G., Hebblewhite, M., Berger, J., Elmhagen, B., Letnic, M., Nelson, M.P., Schmitz, O.J., Smith, D.W., Wallach, A.D., Wirsing, A.J., 2014. Status and ecological effects of the World’s largest carnivores. Science 343, 1241484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ritchie, E.G., Elmhagen, B., Glen, A.S., Letnic, M., Ludwig, G., McDonald, R.A., 2012. Ecosystem restoration with teeth: what role for predators? Trends Ecol. Evol. 27, 265–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ronnenberg, K., Habbe, B., Gräber, R., Strauß, E., Siebert, U., 2017. Coexistence of wolves and humans in a densely populated region (Lower Saxony, Germany). Basic Appl. Ecol. 25, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sazatornil, V., Rodríguez, A., Klaczek, M., Ahmadi, M., Álvares, F., Arthur, S., Blanco, J.C., Borg, B.L., Cluff, D., Cortés, Y., García, E.J., Geffen, E., Habib, B., Iliopoulos, Y., Kaboli, M., Krofel, M., Llaneza, L., Marucco, F., Oakleaf, J.K., Person, D.K., Potočnik, H., Ražen, N., Rio-Maior, H., Sand, H., Unger, D., Wabakken, P., López-Bao, J.V., 2016. The role of human-related risk inbreeding site selection by wolves. Biol. Conserv. 201, 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schmidt, K., Jędrzejewski, W., Theuerkauf, J., Kowalczyk, R., Okarma, H., Jędrzejewska, B., 2008. Reproductive behaviour of wild-living wolves Białowieza Primeval Forest (Poland). J. Ethol. 26, 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Seal, U.S., Kreeger, T.J., 1987. Chemical immobilization of furbearers. In: Novak, M., Baker, J.A., Obbard, M.E., Malloch, B. (Eds.), Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America. Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, pp. 191–215.Google Scholar
  78. Shibuya, H., Collins, B.K., Huang, T.H., Johnson, G.S., 1994. A polymorphic (AGGAAT)n tandem repeat in an intron of the canine von Willebrand factor gene. Anim. Genet. 25, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Śmietana, W., Wajda, J., 1997. Wolf number changes in Bieszczady National Park, Poland. Acta Theriol. 42, 241–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stronen, A.V., Navid, E.L., Quinn, M.S., Paquet, P.C., Bryan, H.M., Darimont, C.T., 2014. Population genetic structure of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in a marine archipelago suggests island-mainland differentiation consistent with dietary niche. BMC Ecol. 14, 11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Taberlet, P., Griffin, S., Goossens, B., Questiau, S., Manceau, V., Escaravage, N., Waits, LP., Bouvet, J., 1996. Reliable genotyping of samples with very low DNA quantities using PCR. Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 3189–3194.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Trouwborst, A., Boitani, L., Linnell, J.D.C., 2017. Interpreting ‘favourable conservation status’ for large carnivores in Europe: how many are needed and how many are wanted? Biodivers. Conserv. 26, 37–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Trouwborst, A., 2015. Global large carnivore conservation and international law. Biodivers. Conserv. 24, 1567–1588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Votsi, N.E.P., Zomeni, M.S., Pantis, J.D., 2016. Evaluating the effectiveness of Natura 2000 network for wolf conservation: a case-study in Greece. Environ. Manag. 57, 257–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wabakken, P., Sand, H., Liberg, O., Bjärvall, A., 2001. The recovery, distribution, and population dynamics of wolves on the Scandinavian peninsula, 1978–1998. Can. J. Zool. 79, 710–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wagner, C., Holzapfel, M., Kluth, G., Reinhardt, I., Ansorge, H., 2012. Wolf (Canis lupus) feeding habits during the first eight years of its occurrence in Germany. Mammal. Biol. 77, 196–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wilmers, C. C., Crabtree, R.L., Smith, D.W., Murphy, K.M., Getz, W.M., 2003. Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: grey wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park. J. Anim. Ecol. 72, 909–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zub, K., Theuerkauf, J., Jędrzejewski, W., Jędrzejewska, B., Schmidt, K., Kowalczyk, R., 2003. Wolf pack territory marking in the Białowieza Primeval Forest (Poland). Behaviour 140, 635–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert W. Mysłajek
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maciej Tracz
    • 2
  • Magdalena Tracz
    • 2
  • Patrycja Tomczak
    • 3
    • 4
  • Maciej Szewczyk
    • 1
  • Natalia Niedźwiecka
    • 4
  • Sabina Nowak
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of WarsawWarszawaPoland
  2. 2.Western Pomeranian Natural SocietyWegorzynoPoland
  3. 3.Institute of Romance Studies, Faculty of Modern Languages and LiteratureAdam Mickiewicz University in PoznańPoznańPoland
  4. 4.Association for Nature “WolfLipowaPoland

Personalised recommendations