Mammalian Biology

, Volume 87, Issue 1, pp 168–175 | Cite as

Determinants of smooth-coated otter occupancy in a rapidly urbanizing coastal landscape in Southeast Asia

  • Anucha KamjingEmail author
  • Dusit Ngoprasert
  • Robert Steinmetz
  • Wanlop Chutipong
  • Tommaso Savini
  • George A. Gale
Original investigation


Urbanization often has negative impacts on wildlife, nevertheless many species can persist in heavily modified habitats. Understanding factors that promote species persistence in urbanizing landscapes is therefore important for maintaining biodiversity in changing landscapes and may inform more biodiversity-friendly development. We investigated effects of landscape-scale variables on habitat occupancy of Smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) in the Inner Gulf of Thailand. In this internationally important wetland complex, 86% of natural habitats have been altered and are now highly urbanized. We conducted track and sign surveys in 60, 25 km2 grid cells encompassing 1,474 km2. Within each cell, we quantified the landscape cover types including urban areas, natural habitat (predominately thin ribbons of mangrove along waterways), agriculture, aquaculture, and potential prey availability using a GIS and field surveys. We used occupancy models to identify habitat variables that affected probability of detection and occupancy. Estimated otter occupancy, based on the top model, was 0.33 ±0.07 (95% CI 0.18–0.48) and detection probability was 0.50 ± 0.05 (95% CI 0.41–0.60). Otter occupancy was positively associated with the proportion of natural habitat and the cover of traditional aquaculture ponds, but negatively associated with agriculture and urban cover. The remaining natural patches appear to act as critical refuges for otter, allowing them to persist in an otherwise heavily transformed landscape. Because aquaculture ponds are likely important prey sources for otters, it may lead to conflict with aquaculture farmers. Further studies of feeding and movement patterns in cooperation with aquaculture farmers would be beneficial for developing detailed management plans for the species in this human dominated landscape.


Aquaculture Inner Gulf of Thailand Occupancy Smooth-coated otter Urbanization 


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Copyright information

© Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde, e. V. DGS 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anucha Kamjing
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dusit Ngoprasert
    • 1
  • Robert Steinmetz
    • 2
  • Wanlop Chutipong
    • 1
  • Tommaso Savini
    • 1
  • George A. Gale
    • 1
  1. 1.Conservation Ecology ProgramKing Mongkut’s University of Technology ThonburiBangkokThailand
  2. 2.World Wide Fund for Nature - ThailandBangkokThailand

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