Location of a contact zone between Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. domesticus with M. m. castaneus mtDNA in southern New Zealand
The house mouse, Mus musculus, was first introduced into New Zealand in significant numbers in the early to mid nineteenth century, with genomic components from different sources of the three subspecies M. m. domesticus, M. m. musculus and M. m. castaneus. M. m. domesticus is now widely distributed in New Zealand, with genomic and morphological evidence of M. m. musculus in a few scattered locations. M. m. domesticus/M. m. castaneus hybrids are dominant in the southern third of the South Island. We anticipated that there should be a definable southern contact zone between pure M. m. domesticus and M. m. domesticus/M. m. castaneus hybrids. We tested this hypothesis by screening 170 DNA samples from mice collected in the southern South Island, using a PCR technique which rapidly distinguishes the mitochondrial genomes of the three subspecies.
All mice sampled from in or north of Lincoln (43.63° S) had only M. m. domesticus mtDNA, whereas all those from or further south than Hook (44.68° S) had M. m. castaneus mtDNA Between the two sites, mice carrying mtDNA of both subspecies were found, sometimes in the same building. On present data, this contact zone extends approximately 50 km north to south and some 30 km inland. Classical tests with three nuclear DNA markers confirmed earlier work showing that the nuclear genomes of all mice appeared to be predominantly domesticus-like.
We conclude that if purebred M. m. castaneus mice did originally reach New Zealand, extensive back-crossing with M. m. domesticus has made the castaneus nuclear genome virtually undetectable with the tests that we employ.
KeywordsMus musculus domesticus M. m. castaneus Hybridisation Invasive species New Zealand
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