Green Propolis: In Vitro Photoprotective and Photostability Studies of Single and Incorporated Extracts in a Sunscreen Formulation

Abstract

Propolis is a natural, non-toxic resin produced by honey bees that has been used for hundreds of years for its biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic, and cariostatic properties. Currently, it is used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, sun protection factor, and photostability of different hydroalcoholic extracts of green propolis. All extracts prepared presented high absorption in the UVB region. The extract of 70% green propolis (high temperature) was incorporated into Gel Permulen TR-1. This new formulation presented a higher value of sun protection factor. Besides that, the formulation developed with Gel Permulen TR-1 and the hydroalcoholic extract of 70% green propolis (high temperature) showed good photostability and it was safe to be applied on the skin according the HET-CAM test. These results indicated the potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of 70% green propolis (high temperature) for use in sunscreen.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Departamento de Química and Escola de Farmácia da Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto and Núcleo de Pesquisa de Produtos Naturais e Sintéticos da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto.

Funding

This study was financially supported by PROPP/UFOP (No. 23109.004080/2019-88).

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Contributions

WASA contributed to the incorporation of green propolis extracts in the filter and also contributed to the sun protection factor studies. AAS contributed to the evaluation of photostability. ASV contributed to the preparation of the ethanolic extracts of the green propolis. AMN contributed to the chemical studies and supervised the laboratory work and critical reading of the manuscript. ALA designed the study and contributed to the critical reading of the manuscript. TC contributed to the sun protection factor studies, photostability studies, and the design of the graphs. TRA and PMAV contributed to evaluation of the antioxidant activity, the determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content, and the statistical analysis. GHBS supervised the laboratory work and contributed to the Biological studies and also to critical reading of the manuscript. ODHS supervised the laboratory work, contributed to the Biological studies and contributed to the HET-CAM studies. LRS contributed to the antioxidant activity studies. VMRS designed the study, supervised the experiments, wrote the manuscript, and contributed to the critical reading of the manuscript. All the authors have read the final manuscript, approved the submission, and contributed with the biological and chemical studies. All the authors contributed to the final manuscript writing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Viviane Martins Rebello dos Santos.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Almeida, W.A.d., Sousa, L.R.D., dos Santos Antunes, A. et al. Green Propolis: In Vitro Photoprotective and Photostability Studies of Single and Incorporated Extracts in a Sunscreen Formulation. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 30, 436–443 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43450-020-00071-z

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Keywords

  • Extracts
  • Formulation
  • Sun protection factor
  • Photostability
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Phenolic