Multifunctional biological properties and phytochemical constituents of Mangifera indica L. seed kernel extract for preventing skin aging


This study aimed to investigate the potential of Mangifera indica L. seed kernel extract, which is highly discarded by the global food processing industry, as a multifunctional bioactive ingredient for nutraceutical and cosmeceutical applications. Different extracting solvents were utilized, the extracts were then tested for their antioxidant activities using DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging assays, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Additionally, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and gallic acid content were elucidated using Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric assays, as well as high performance liquid chromatography. The hydroethanolic extract (KMHE) exhibited the highest percentage yield, with the highest antioxidant activity owing to its high phenolic content. KMHE consisted of 773.66 ± 9.42 mg GAE/g extract in TPC, 36.20 ± 4.20 mg RU/g extract in TFC. Additionally, gallic acid was shown to be a major constituent of KMHE. KMHE was investigated for anti-tyrosinase, anti-hyaluronidase, anti-MMP-2, and anti-MMP-9 activities. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of KMHE were studied in RAW 264.7 cells induced by nitric oxide and KMHE was shown to prevent DNA damage, indicating an inhibitory effect on cellular aging. KMHE showed outstanding anti-tyrosinase activity and was as potent an anti-hyaluronidase as gallic acid. Additionally, our results reveal notable anti-MMP-2 and anti-MMP-9 effects that were not significantly different from those of gallic acid. Furthermore, KMHE demonstrated 61.54 ± 2.39% nitric oxide inhibition, with no cytotoxic effects, in RAW264.7 cells, and also prevented DNA damage in the human fibroblast BJ cell line with no cytotoxic effects. Therefore, KMHE could be a promising, natural multifunctional bioactive compound for nutraceutical and cosmeceutical applications.

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This research was funded by the Agricultural Research and Development Agency (Public organization, ARDA) Thailand and partially supported by Chiang Mai University grant. The possible APC was funded by Innovation Center for Holistic Health, Nutraceuticals, and Cosmeceuticals, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University.

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Correspondence to Pimporn Leelapornpisid.

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Poomanee, W., Khunkitti, W., Chaiyana, W. et al. Multifunctional biological properties and phytochemical constituents of Mangifera indica L. seed kernel extract for preventing skin aging. Toxicol Res. (2021).

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  • Mangifera indica L. kernel
  • Matrix metalloproteinases
  • Anti-tyrosinase
  • Anti-hyaluronidase
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • DNA damage