Ameliorative effect of aqueous leaf extract of Solanum aethiopicum on phenylhydrazine-induced anaemia and toxicity in rats


Solanum aethiopicum is used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of overweight, constipation and anaemia. This study evaluated the ameliorative effect of aqueous leaf extract of S. aethiopicum on phenylhydrazine-induced anaemia in rats. Acute toxicity was determined in male and female rats (n = 5/group/sex) by oral administration of single dose of up to 5000 mg/kg of the S. aethiopicum extract. The experimental rats were randomly grouped into five (5) groups of 6 rats each. Group (i) served as normal control, group (ii) negative control, group (iii) standard drug-5 mg/kg ferrous sulphate, groups (iv) and (v), 200 and 400 mg/kg of S. aethiopicum extract respectively. Phenylhydrazine (PHZ) was administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days to groups (ii–v). After 14 days, the rats were sacrificed; blood, liver and kidney were collected. The haematological, lipid profile, liver and kidney function parameters were determined and the histopathology of the liver and kidney were examined. In acute toxicity study, no signs of toxicity or death were recorded. The study shows an observable significant (P < 0.05) increase in packed cell volume, haemoglobin and red blood cell counts at 400 mg/kg S. aethiopicum extract in both the male and female rats when compared to other groups. Solanum aethiopicum extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg reduced aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine and chloride. The results of this study lent credence to the use of S. aethiopicum leaf as an anti-anaemic tonic with a wide margin of safety and hepato/reno-protective potentials.

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Correspondence to Eziuche Amadike Ugbogu.

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Ekweogu, C.N., Ude, V.C., Nwankpa, P. et al. Ameliorative effect of aqueous leaf extract of Solanum aethiopicum on phenylhydrazine-induced anaemia and toxicity in rats. Toxicol Res. 36, 227–238 (2020).

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  • Solanum aethiopicum
  • Toxicity
  • Anaemia
  • Liver and kidney
  • Haematology