Table 2 Overview of autonomous robotic ultrasound systems and their respective components, published between 2015 and 2020

From: Medical Robotics for Ultrasound Imaging: Current Systems and Future Trends

Topic Subtopic Institution Medical field(s) Robot Key system components Data source for autonomous control In vivo/phantom study LORA Year Ref.
Type Force measurement Ultrasound probe Camera system
Autonomous image acquisition 3D image reconstruction CRCHUM, Montréal, Canada Vascular Serial; 6 DOF; F3 [CRS] External FT sensor (6 DOF) Linear probe; L14-7 [Ultrasonix] None US image; force Phantom; healthy volunteer (1) 6 2016 [41]
OPTIMAL, Xi’an, China Not specified Serial; 6 DOF; C4 [EPSON] Two external F sensors Linear probe; L9-4/38 [Ultrasonix] RGB-D camera; Kinect [Microsoft] Force; camera Phantom 7 2019 [42]
Trajectory planning and probe positioning CAMPAR, Munich, Germany Vascular Serial; 7 DOF; LBR iiwa [KUKA] Internal T sensors 3D convex probe; 4DC7-3/40 [Ultrasonix] single plane mode RGB-D camera; Kinect [Microsoft] MRI image; US image; force; camera Phantom; healthy volunteers (2) 7 2017 [43]
Vascular Serial; 7 DOF; LBR iiwa [KUKA] Internal T sensors 3D convex probe; 4DC7-3/40 [Ultrasonix]; single plane mode RGB-D camera; Kinect [Microsoft] MRI image; US image; force; camera Healthy volunteers (5) 7 2016 [44•]
Not specified Serial; 7 DOF; LBR iiwa [KUKA] Internal T sensors Convex probe; C5-2 [Ultrasonix] RGB-D camera; Kinect [Microsoft] MRI image; force; camera Phantom; animal tissue 7 2016 [45]
Thyroid Serial; 7 DOF; LBR iiwa [KUKA] Internal T sensors Linear probe; L14-5 [Ultrasonix] RGB-D camera; RealSense SR300 [Intel] Force; camera Healthy volunteers (4) 7 2017 [46]
Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, Lübeck, Germany Vascular Serial; 7 DOF; LBR iiwa [KUKA] Internal T sensors Linear probe; L12-3 [Philips] None US image; force Phantom 6 2020 [47•]
IRISA, Rennes, France Not specified Serial; 6 DOF; Viper 850 [Adept] External F sensor 3D convex probe; 4DC7-3/40 [Ultrasonix] None US image; force Phantom 6 2016 [48]
Image quality improvement IRISA, Rennes, France and CAMPAR, Munich, Germany Not specified Serial; 6 DOF; Viper s650 [Adept] External FT sensor 3D convex probe; 4DC7-3/40 [Ultrasonix] None US image; force Phantom 5 2016 [49]
Not specified Serial; 7 DOF; LBR iiwa [KUKA] Internal T sensors 3D convex probe; 4DC7-3/40 [Ultrasonix] None US image; force Phantom; healthy volunteer (1) 6 2017 [50•]
Autonomous therapy guidance Tool tracking CAMP, Munich, Germany Vascular Serial; 7 DOF; LBR iiwa [KUKA] Internal T sensors Convex probe; C5-2 [Ultrasonix] None US image; force Phantom 6 2019 [51•]
Target tracking CAMP, Baltimore, USA and CMBR, Pontedera, Italy Needle placement × 2 serial; 7 DOF; LBR iiwa [KUKA] Not specified Convex probe; C5-2 [Ultrasonix] RGB-D camera; RealSense F200 [Intel] US image; camera Phantom 7 2016 [52]
UNISTRA, Strasbourg, France HIFU Serial; 6 DOF; [Sinters] None 2D probe; not specified NA US image Phantom 6 2015 [54]
NCU, Taoyuan, Taiwan HIFU Serial; 4 DOF; YK400XG [YAMAHA] None 2D probe; not specified Tracking camera; Polaris Spectra [Northern Digital] US image, Camera Phantom 5 2017 [55]
  1. F force, FT force-torque, Ref references, T torque, US ultrasound