Table 1 Overview of teleoperated and collaborative robotic ultrasound systems and their respective components, published between 2015 and 2020

From: Medical Robotics for Ultrasound Imaging: Current Systems and Future Trends

Topic System/institution Medical field(s) Robot Key system components In vivo/phantom study LORA Year Ref.
Type Force measurement Ultrasound probe Camera system User interface
Teleoperation MGIUS-R3, Shenzhen, China Not specified Serial; 6 DOF; custom design External F sensor Not specified Not specified Dummy probe (6 DOF, robot control), keyboard (US control) Patient volunteer (1) 1 2020 [13]
MELODY, Naveil, France Cardiac, abdominal, vascular, pelvic, urinary, prenatal Serial; 3 active DOF rotation, 3 passive DOF translation (manual); custom design External F sensor; 20 N limit Convex probe; C5-2 [BK Medical] RGB camera (webcam conferencing) Haptic device (6 DOF, custom, robot control), tablet/keyboard (US control) Patient volunteers (> 300) 2 2016; 2017; 2018 [14,15,16, 17•]
ReMeDi, Lublin, Poland Cardiac, abdominal Serial; 7 active DOF; custom design to reproduce human examiner External FT sensor (6 DOF); max. force 40 N Not specified RGB camera (webcam conferencing) Haptic device (6 DOF, custom, robot control) Patient volunteers (> 10) 2 2016; 2017; 2019; 2020 [18,19,20, 21••]
TOURS (Sonoscanner-CNES), Tours, France Abdominal, vascular, pelvic, prenatal Parallel; 3 active DOF rotation, translational placement manual; custom design None 3D convex probe and linear probes; [Vermon] RGB camera (webcam conferencing) Dummy probe (robot control), keyboard (US control) Patient volunteers (> 100) 1 2016; 2018 [22, 23•]
ROBO Health Institute, Shenzhen, China Not specified Serial; 6 DOF (× 3 prismatic, × 3 revolute); custom design External F sensor (6 DOF) Convex probe; [SonoStar] RGB camera (webcam conferencing) Keyboard (robot translation), dummy probe (robot rotation) Healthy volunteer (1) 2 2017 [24]
CNMC, Washington, USA Not specified Parallel; 6 DOF (fine positioning); custom design External FT sensor (6 DOF) Convex probe; 4C2 [Terason] RGB camera (webcam conferencing) Haptic device (6 DOF, [Phantom, Omni], robot control) Phantom 2 2015 [25]
ROBIN, Oslo, Norway Not specified Serial; 6 DOF; UR5 [Universal Robots] Internal T sensors; external F sensor (6 DOF) Linear probe; [GE] Not specified Haptic device (6 DOF, [Phantom, Omni], robot control) Phantom 2 2016 [26]
BME-SJTU, Shanghai, China Not specified Serial; 6 DOF; UR5 [Universal Robots] Internal T sensors Convex array probe; CLA3.5 [Vermon & prototype US] Not specified Haptic device (6 DOF, [Touch, 3D System Corp.], robot control) Phantom 2 2020 [27]
ISR, Coimbra, Portugal Not specified Serial; 7 DOF; WAM [Barrett] External F sensor (6 DOF) Convex probe; Titan C15 [SonoSite] Monochrome-D camera; CamBoard nano [pmd[vision]] Haptic device (6 DOF, [Phantom, Omni], robot control) Healthy volunteer (1) 2 2015; 2018 [28, 29]
OPTIMAL, Xi’an, China Vascular Serial; 6 DOF; C4 [Epson] None Convex and linear probe; C7-3/50 and L9-4/38 [Ultrasonix] 4 RGB cameras (webcam conferencing) Joystick (controller) Healthy volunteer (1) 1 2019 [30]
Collaborative assistance CRCHUM, Montréal, Canada Iliac-popliteal artery Serial; 6 DOF; CRS F3 [Thermo CRS] None Linear probe; FLA-10 [GE] and L12-5 [Philips] None Display of volume rendering Patient volunteers (2) 4 2014 [32]
CAMP, Munich, Germany Orthopedic Serial; 7 DOF; LBR iiwa [KUKA] Internal T sensors Convex probe; C5-2/60 [Ultrasonix] None Not specified Healthy volunteer (1) 4 2020 [33]
Soft tissue Serial; 7 DOF; LBR iiwa [KUKA] Internal T sensors Linear probe; [Ultrasonix] None Not specified Healthy volunteers (30) 4 2018 [34•]
Spine Serial; 7 DOF; LBR iiwa [KUKA] Internal T sensors Convex probe; C5-2/60 [Ultrasonix] None Display of volume rendering Patient volunteers (2) 3 2018 [39•]
Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, USA Not specified Serial; 6 DOF; UR5 [Universal Robot] External FT sensor (6 DOF) [Robotiq] Convex probe; C5-2 [Ultrasonix] None Hand guidance with virtual walls Phantom 4 2016 [35]
PLA, Beijing, China Liver Serial; 6 DOF; UR5 [Universal Robot] None Convex probe; [Minddray] None Controller and display unit Animal tissue 4 2018 [36]
Rutgers, New Brunswick, USA Forearm vessels Serial; 3 DOF; custom design Not specified Linear probe; [Telemed] NIR camera; custom design Not specified Healthy volunteers (9) 4 2016 [37•]
IRISA, Rennes, France and TUM, Munich, Germany Generic needle guidance × 2 serial; 6 DOF; Viper s650 [Adept] Not specified 3D convex probe; 4DC7-3/40 [Ultrasonix] None Display of highlighted needle position Phantom 4 2015 [38]
IPCB, Castelo Branco, Portugal Femoral orthopedic Serial; 7 DOF; LBR [KUKA] None Linear probe; [Aloka] Tracking camera; Polaris Spectra [NDI] Not specified Phantom 4 2015 [40]
  1. F force, FT force-torque, max maximum, Ref references, T torque, US ultrasound