Evaluation of recycled asphalt mixtures rejuvenated with Madhuca longifolia (Mahua) oil


Reuse of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) material not only leads to environmental sustainability, but also lowers down the of construction cost. However successful addition of RAP is limited to replacement level of 50%, as it is believed that higher quantity of the RAP makes the asphalt more susceptible to fatigue and thermal cracking. Studies on rejuvenation of aged binders recommend that it is possible to use higher percentage of RAP by using recycling agents or rejuvenators. Different types of oils such as vegetable oil, tall oil, cotton seed oil, waste engine oil, pongamia oil and soybean oil etc. have been explored as rejuvenators. In this study, Madhuca longifolia oil (Mahua oil), another oil produced largely in eastern part of India has been assessed as a potential rejuvenator to design recycled Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with high RAP content. Suitable dosage of the rejuvenator was decided based on the evaluation of rheological characteristics of the rejuvenated aged binder using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). Performance of the conventional asphalt mixture and rejuvenated mixtures containing RAP with varying (30–70%) RAP percentages was assessed in terms of volumetric properties, indirect tensile strength, moisture sensitivity, resilient modulus, rutting, fatigue, low temperature cracking. Results were compared with the performance of recycled HMA made using softer binder grade. Results indicate that recycled mixtures with RAP content up to 60% can be successfully designed with addition of Madhuca longifolia oil to meet the without notably influencing the performance of the pavement.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. [1]

    S. Im, F. Zhou, R. Lee, T. Scullion, Impacts of Rejuvenators on Performance and Engineering Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Materials, Constr. Build. Mater. 53 (2014) 596–603.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. [2]

    C. Xinxin, C. Xuejuan, T. Boming, W. Yuanyuan, L. Xiaolong, Investigating on Possibility of Waste Vegetable oil Rejuvenating Aged Asphalt, Appl. Sci. 8 (5) (2018) 1–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. [3]

    M. Chen, B. Leng, S. Wu, Y. Sang, Physical, Chemical and Rheological properties of Waste Edible Vegetable oil rejuvenated asphalt binder, Constr. Build. Mater. 66 (2014) 286–298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    H. Asli, E. Ahmadinia, M. Zargar, M. R. Karim, Investigation on Physical properties of Waste Cooking oil-rejuvenated bitumen binder, Constr. Build. Mater. 37 (2012) 398–405.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. [5]

    M. Zargar, E. Ahmadinia, H. Asli, M. R. Karim, Investigation of the possibility of using Waste Cooking oil as a rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen, J. Hazard. Mater. 233–234 (2012) 254–258.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. [6]

    S. K. Pradhan, U. C. Sahoo, Performance assessment of aged binder rejuvenated with polanga oil, J. Traffic Transp. Eng. 6 (6) (2019) 608–620.

    Google Scholar 

  7. [7]

    C. Chen, J.H. Podolsky, R.C. Williams, E.W. Cochran, Laboratory Investigation of using Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil (AESO) for Asphalt Modification, Constr. Build. Mater. 187 (2018) 267–279.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    M. Chen, F. Xiao, B. J. Putman, B. Leng, S. Wu, High Temperature Properties of Rejuvenating Recovered binder with Rejuvenator Waste Cooking and Cotton Seed oils, Constr. Build. Mater. 59 (2014), 10–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. [9]

    M. Elkashef, R. Christopher Williams, Improving Fatigue and Low temperature Performance of 100% RAP mixtures using a Soybean-derived rejuvenator, Constr. Build. Mater. 151 (2017), 345–352.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. [10]

    A. C.X. Portugal, L. C.F.L. Lucena, A.E.F.L. Lucena, D.B. Costa, J. Dantas, Evaluating the Rheological effect of asphalt binder Modification using Soybean oil, Petroleum Sci. Tech. 36 (17) (2018) 1351–1360.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. [11]

    H. Jiang, J. Zhang, C. Sun, S. Liu, M. Liang, Z. Yao, Experimental Assessment on Engineering Properties of Aged bitumen Incorporating a Developed Rejuvenator, Constr. Build. Mater. 79 (2018) 1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. [12]

    G. Mazzoni, E. Bocci, F. Canestrari, Influence of Rejuvenators on Bitumen Ageing in Hot Recycled Asphalt Mixtures, J. Traffic Transp. Eng. (English Edition) 5 (3) (2018) 157–168.

    Google Scholar 

  13. [13]

    M. Zaumanis, R.B. Mallick, R. Frank, Evaluation of different Recycling Agents for Restoring Aged Asphalt Binder and Performance of 100% Recycled Asphalt, J. Mater. Struct. 48 (8) (2015) 2475–2488.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. [14]

    N. Tapsoba, C. Sauzeat, H.D. Benedetto, H. Baaj, M. Ech, Behaviour of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement and Asphalt Shingle, Road Mater. Pave. Design 15 (2) (2014) 330–347.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. [15]

    N. Tran, A. Taylor, P. Turner, C. Holmes, L. Porot, Effect of Rejuvenator on Performance Characteristics of High RAP Mixture, Road Mater. Pave. Design 18 (sup1) (2016), 183–208.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. [16]

    N. Sabahfar, A. Ahmed, S. Rubaiyat, M. Hossain, Cracking Resistance Evaluation of Mixtures with High Percentages of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement, J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 29 (4) (2016) 06016022:1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  17. [17]

    R.K. Veeraragavan, R.B. Mallick, M. Tao, M. Zaumanis, Laboratory Comparison of Rejuvenated 50% Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Hot-Mix Asphalt with Conventional 20% RAP Mix, Transp. Res. Rec. 2633 (2017) 69–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. [18]

    S. Im, P. Karki, F. Zhou, Development of new Mix Design Method for Asphalt mixture containing RAP and rejuvenators, Constr. Build. Mater. 115 (2016) 727–734.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. [19]

    C. D. DeDene, Z. You, The Performance of Aged Asphalt materials Rejuvenated with Waste Engine Oil, Inter. J. Pavement Res. Technol. 7 (2) (2014) 145–152.

    Google Scholar 

  20. [20]

    X. Jia, B. Huang, J.A. Moore, S. Zhao, Influence of Waste Engine Oil on Asphalt Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement, J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 27 (12) (2015) 04015042:1–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. [21]

    J. Shen, S. Amirkhanian, B. Tang, Effects of rejuvenator on Performance properties of Rejuvenated Asphalt binder and mixtures, Constr. Build. Mater. 21 (2007) 958–964.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. [22]

    J. Shen, S. Amirkhanian, J.A. Miller, Effects of Rejuvenating Agents on Superpave Mixtures Containing Reclaimed asphalt Pavement, J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 19 (5) (2007) 376–384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. [23]

    S. Im, F. Zhou, R. Lee, T. Scullion, Impacts of Rejuvenators on Performance and Engineering properties of Asphalt mixtures Containing Recycled Materials, Constr. Build. Mater. 53 (2014) 596–603.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. [24]

    M. D. Nazzal, W. Mogawer, A. Austerman, L. A. Qtaish, S. Kaya, Multi-scale Evaluation of the effect of Rejuvenators on the Performance of high RAP content Mixtures. Constr. Build. Mater. 101 (2015) 50–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. [25]

    M. Porot, J. Wistuba, J. Gronniger, Asphalt and binder Evaluation of asphalt mix with 70% Reclaimed Asphalt, Road Mater. Pave. Des. 18 (sup2) (2017) 66–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. [26]

    P. A. Dokandari, D. Kaya, B. Sengoz, A. Topal, Implementing Waste oils with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement, Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Civil Struct. Env. Eng. (CSEE 17) Barcelona, Spain, 2017, pp. 2–12.

  27. [27]

    American Society for Testing of Materials, Standard Method of Test for Quantitative Extraction of Asphalt binder from Hot Mix Asphalt. ASTM D2172. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  28. [28]

    American Society for Testing of Materials, Standard practice for recovery of asphalt from solution using the Rotary Evaporator. ASTM D5404. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  29. [29]

    N. Saravanan, G. Nagarajan, S. Puhan, Experimental Investigation on a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled with Madhuca Indicaester and Diesel Blend, Biomass and Bio Ener. 34 (6) (2010) 838–843.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. [30]

    Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), Superpave Series No. 2 (SP-2), Asphalt Binder Specifications and Testing, Asphalt Institute, Lexington, KY, USA, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  31. [31]

    American Society for Testing of Materials, Standard test Method for Indirect Tensile Strength of Asphalt Mixtures. ASTM D6931. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  32. [32]

    American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Standard Method of test for Resistance of Compacted Asphalt Mixtures to Moisture-Induced Damage. AASHTO T283. Washington DC, USA, 2014.

  33. [33]

    American Society for Testing of Materials, Standard test Method for Determining the Resilient Modulus of Bituminous Mixtures by Indirect Tension Test. ASTM D7369. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  34. [34]

    British Standard Institution, Bituminous Mixtures-test Methods for Hot Mix Asphalt-Wheel Tracking. BS EN 12697:22. London, UK, 2003.

  35. [35]

    American Society for Testing of Materials, Standard test Method for Evaluation of Asphalt Mixture Cracking Resistance using the Semi-Circular Bend test at Intermediate Temperatures. ASTM D8044. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2016.

    Google Scholar 

  36. [36]

    British Standards Institution, Method for the Determination of the Fatigue Characteristics of Bituminous Mixtures using Indirect Tensile Fatigue. BS DD ABF, London, UK, 2003.

  37. [37]

    Asphalt Institute, Asphalt Mix Design Method. Manual Series No-02 (MS-2). AI, Lexington, KY, USA, 2014.

  38. [38]

    American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Specification for Performance Graded Asphalt Binder. AASHTO M320. Washington DC, USA, 2015.

  39. [39]

    G. Valdes, F. Perez-jimenez, R. Miro, A. Martinez, R. Botella, Experimental Study of Recycled Asphalt Mixtures with High Percentages of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), Constr. Build. Mater. 25 (2011) 1289–1297.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. [40]

    M. Q. Ismael, T.T. Khaled, Effect of Rejuvenating Agent on the Mixtures containing high Percent of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement, International conference on Mater. Sci. Eng. 454 (2018) 012054:1–17.

    Google Scholar 

  41. [41]

    C. V. Winkle, A. Mokhtari, H. Lee, R.C. Williams, S. Schram, Laboratory and Field Evaluation of HMA with High contents of Recycled Asphalt Pavement, J. Mater. Civ. Eng 29 (2) (2017) 04016196:1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  42. [42]

    R. Ghabchi, M. Barman, D. Singh, M. Zaman, M.A. Mubaraki, Comparison of Laboratory Performance of Asphalt Mixes Containing different Proportions of RAS and RAP, Constr. Build. Mater. 124 (2016) 343–351.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. [43]

    R. Radovskiy, Analytical Formulas for Film Thickness in Compacted Asphalt Mixture, Transp. Res. Rec. 1829 (1) (2003) 26–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. [44]

    John W.H. Oliver, The effect of binder film thickness on asphalt cracking and ravelling, Road and Transport Research, ARRB 20 (3) (2011) 3–13.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sujit Kumar Pradhan.

Additional information

Peer review under responsibility of Chinese Society of Pavement Engineering.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pradhan, S.K., Sahoo, U.C. Evaluation of recycled asphalt mixtures rejuvenated with Madhuca longifolia (Mahua) oil. Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol. 14, 43–53 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42947-020-0279-6

Download citation


  • Reclaimed asphalt pavement
  • Recycling
  • Sustainability
  • Rejuvenator
  • Mahua oil
  • Softer binder