Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Citrus sinensis Peel



The industrial application of pectin is increasing although its production was far away from the demand, which exerts extra pressure on the existing pectin sources. The present study was focused on the extraction and quality evaluation of pectin from Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) peel as a potential pectin source.


Pectin was extracted from sweet orange peel powder in a shaking water bath at three different extraction conditions, viz. temperatures (65, 75, 85, and 95 °C), pH (1.0, 1.5, 2, and 2.5), and time (45, 60, 75, and 90 min). The extracted pectin was dried to constant weight in a cabinet dryer at 50 °C and packed in the high-density polyethylene pouch and stored at 4 °C until used for quality analysis. After single factor experiments, optimization of process variables was done statistically using the response surface methodology (RSM), where the experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial model.


The pectin yield was found to vary between 12.52 and 22.45% and the best extraction condition was recorded to be higher in yield at the temperature of 95 °C (21.53%), pH of 1.5 (21.28%), and extraction time of 90 min (22.45%) from the single factor optimization. The quality parameters of pectin, e.g., equivalent weight (1744.66~1899.33 g), methoxyl group content (5.02~5.64%), and degree of esterification (73.26~77.56%), were found to be in satisfactory levels. On the contrary, anhydrouronic acid content (38.47~41.30%) was very low compared to the existing data for various pectin sources. The developed polynomial model has effectively explained the data variation and adequately described the actual correlation between the independent and dependent variables. Results from both single factor experiments and RSM revealed that extraction temperature, pH, and time had a significant influence on the yield and quality of the extracted pectin. From the optimization study, the optimum condition was found as the temperature of 94.13 °C, pH of 1.45, and time of 114.70 min, which yielded 23.64% pectin.


Conclusively, extraction of pectin from sweet orange peel could be of great interest for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

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Special notes of thanks to Professor Dr. Maruf Ahmed, Department of Food Processing and Preservation, HSTU, Dinajpur 5200, Bangladesh, for his cordial assistance.


This study was financially supported by the Institute of Research and Training (IRT) of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University (HSTU), Dinajpur 5200, Bangladesh.

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Correspondence to Md. Mostafa Kamal.

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Kamal, M.M., Kumar, J., Mamun, M.A.H. et al. Extraction and Characterization of Pectin from Citrus sinensis Peel. J. Biosyst. Eng. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42853-021-00084-z

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  • Citrus sinensis
  • Sweet orange
  • Peel
  • Pectin
  • Extraction
  • Quality characterization