Theoretical Analysis of Bending Stresses to Design a Sprocket for Transportation Part of a Chinese Cabbage Collector



Force calculation, stress, and fatigue analysis are major issues in machine design to ensure the life expectancy of sprocket-gear power transmission systems. Therefore, this study aims to conduct a theoretical analysis of bending stresses to select the size and component materials for the power transmission part of a Chinese cabbage collector that is under development.


The three-dimensional models of a 14T sprocket gear for two steel materials, SCr420H and SM45C, were generated, employing commercial software. The bending stresses, deformations, and fatigue damages of the designed sprocket were determined by varying the face width and pressure angle of the sprocket teeth. The Lewis and American Gear Manufacturer Association (AGMA) equations were used to calculate the bending stresses. The calculated bending-stress values were compared with the stress values obtained from finite-element analysis (FEA).


The maximum stress values on the gear teeth were 650.07, 826.23, and 840.77 MPa for a 20° pressure angle by using the Lewis, AGMA, and FEA methods, respectively. The simulated maximum stress value was higher than the yield strength of the SM45C steel and lower than the yield strength of the SCr420H steel. In addition, the maximum face width showed the minimum bending stress and fatigue damage for the selected material. Hence, considering the safety factor, the steel material SCr420H was selected with a 4.5-mm face width for designing the power transmission part of the Chinese cabbage collector.


The analysis of bending stresses presented in this research can guide the design of a sprocket for the efficient transfer of Chinese cabbages using the proposed Chinese cabbage collector.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. Ali, M., Lee, Y. S., Kabir, M. S. N., Kang, T. K., Lee, S. H., & Chung, S. O. (2019). Kinematic analysis for design of the transportation part of a tractor-mounted Chinese cabbage collector. Journal of Biosystems Engineering, 44(4), 226–235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Balaji, D. S., Prabhakaran, S., & Kumar, J. H. (2017). Analysis of surface contact stress for a spur gear of material steel 15ni2cr1mo28. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12(22), 6582–6586.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Gupta, M. B., Choubey, M. A., & Varde, M. G. V. (2012). Contact stress analysis of spur gear. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 1(4), 01–07.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Hassan, A. R. (2009). Contact stress analysis of spur gear teeth pair. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(10), 1279–1284.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Hwang, S. C., Lee, J. H., Lee, D. H., Han, S. H., & Lee, K. H. (2013). Contact stress analysis for a pair of mating gears. Mathematics and Computer Modelling, 57(2), 40–49.

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  6. Jang, D. J., Chung, K. R., Yang, H. J., Kang, S. K., & Kwona, D. Y. (2015). Discussion on the origin of kimchi, representative of Korean unique fermented vegetables. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 2(3), 126–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Karaveer, V., Mogrekar, A., & Joseph, P. R. (2013). Modelling and finite analysis of spur gear. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, 3(5), 2104–2107.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Kim, D. C., Park, Y. J., & Lee, G. H. (2015). Fatigue life prediction of crank-type rotavator. Journal of Biosystems Engineering, 40(4), 305–313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kim, H. G., Jo, Y. J., Kim, C. S., Han, Y. H., & Kim, D. C. (2016). Design improvement of mechanical transmission for tracked small agricultural transporters through gear strength analysis. Journal of Biosystems Engineering, 41(1), 1–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Kim, T. J., Kim, W. S., Kim, Y. S., Chung, S. O., Park, S. U., Hong, S. J., Choi, C. H., & Kim, Y. J. (2019). Strength analysis of mechanical transmission using equivalent torque of plow tillage of an 82 kW-class tractor. Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, 46(4), 723–735.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. KOSIS. (2017). Vegetable production (leafy and stem vegetables). In Korean statistical information service. Daejeon: Republic of Korea. Accessed 23 October 2019.

  12. Lee, S., Lee, D. H., Hwang, S. C., & Lee, K. H. (2012). Stress analysis of helical gear for a railway reducer. Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, 11(2), 55–59 (In Korean with English abstract).

    Google Scholar 

  13. Lee, P. U., Chung, S. O., Choi, C. H., Park, Y. J., & Kim, Y. J. (2016). Analysis of the effects of operating point of tractor engine on fatigue life of PTO gear using simulation. Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, 43(3), 441–449. (In Korean with English abstract).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Lee, Y. S., Jang, B. E., Kim, Y. J., Chung, S. O., Choi, Y. S., & Ji, K. B. (2018). Structural analysis of the transportation and the power transmission parts for design of a self-propelled and small sized Chinese cabbage harvester. In Proceeding of ASABE Annual International Meeting (paper no.1800434). Michigan: St. Joseph.

  15. Nikam, P., & Tanpure, R. (2016). Design optimization of chain sprocket using finite element analysis. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 6(9), 66–69.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Pedrero, J. I., Izaskun, I. V., & Miguel, P. (2007). Calculation of tooth bending strength and surface durability of high transverse contact ratio spur and helical gear drives. Journal of Mechanical Design, 129(1), 69–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Prabhakaran, S., Balaji, D. S., & Kumar, R. P. (2017). Bending stress analysis of a spur gear for material steel 15ni2cr1mo28. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences., 12(19), 5636–5641.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Raptis, G. K., Costopoulos, N. T., Papadopulos, A. G., & Tsolakis, D. A. (2010). Rating of spur gear strength using photoelasticity and the finite element method. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(1), 222–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Sim, K., Moon, H., Choi, G., Koh, S., & Jeon, N. (2018). Transfer case development for power distribution of the 3.5-ton commercial vehicle. Transaction of the KSAE, 26(3), 345–351 (In Korean with English Abstract).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Suthar, R. (2017). Analysis of sprocket strength finite element analysis method. International Journal of Advanced in Management, Technology and Engineering Sciences., 7(12), 109–119.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Tsubaki. (1997). The complete guide to chain. In U.S. Tsubaki, Inc (Ed.), Engagement with sprockets (pp. 12–14). Publisher: Sachio Shimura, Wheeling, Illinois.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Wang, J., & Howard, I. (2006). Error analysis on finite element modeling of involute spur gears. Journal of Mechanical Design, 128(1), 90–97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Yu, S. C., Shin, S. Y., Kang, C. H., Kim, B. G., & Kim, J. O. (2015). Current status of agricultural mechanization in South Korea. In: Proceeding of ASABE Annual International Meeting (paper no. 152189653). Michigan: St. Joseph.

Download references


This work was conducted with the support of the “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development” (Project No. PJ0128532020), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sun-Ok Chung.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lee, Y., Ali, M., Islam, M.N. et al. Theoretical Analysis of Bending Stresses to Design a Sprocket for Transportation Part of a Chinese Cabbage Collector. J. Biosyst. Eng. 45, 85–93 (2020).

Download citation


  • Cabbage collector
  • Power transmission
  • Sprocket gear
  • Bending stress
  • Fatigue analysis