Influence of mixed methods on the surface area and gas products of activated carbon

A Correction to this article was published on 19 March 2020

This article has been updated

Abstract

Upgraded activated carbons (ACs) are typically synthesized by mixed methods, such as solid–solid mixing and wet impregnation of low-grade ACs with KOH. This study compares the properties of upgraded ACs prepared by different methods using elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption isotherms, and X-ray diffraction. In ACs produced by the solid–solid mixing, the ratio of potassium activator is proportional to the surface area and amount of gas produced. However, in wet impregnated ACs, the potassium ratio exhibits a zero or negative correlation. It is demonstrated that potassium ions in solution are not transferred to K2O and do not contribute to the surface area and pore size, generating less amount and different composition of gases. As such, impregnated ACs exhibit similar surface areas and large pores, regardless of the potassium ratio. The physical properties, such as specific surface areas and pore size distribution, of ACs using wet impregnation were similar to the ACs generated by the water physical activation. It indicated that the KOH does not efficiently act as a chemical activator in the wet impregnation method. Therefore, a certain amount and suitable mixing method of chemical activator play an important role in the property upgrade of ACs.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Change history

  • 19 March 2020

    Unfortunately, the funding note has been omitted during the e-proofing.

References

  1. 1.

    Dabrowski A, Podkościelny P, Hubicki Z, Barczak M (2005) Adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbon-a critical review. Chemosphere 58:1049–1070. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.09.067

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Tadda MA, Ahsan A, Shitu A, ElSergany M, Arunkumar T, Jose B, Razzaque MS, Daud NNN (2016) A review on activated carbon: process, application and prospects. J Adv Civ Eng Pract Res 2(1):7–13

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Yanhong L, Suling Z, Jiameng Y, Congcong B, Junhao Z, Yingxue L, Yang Y, Zhen G, Miao Z, Lei W, Maixia M, Yanfeng M, Yongsheng C (2017) Mesoporous activated carbon materials with ultrahigh mesopore volume and effective specific surface area for high performance supercapacitors. Carbon 124:64–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.08.044

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Chen W-H, Lin B-J (2013) Hydrogen and synthesis gas production from activated carbon and steam via reusing carbon dioxide. Appl Energy 101:551–559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.06.030

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Pezoti O, Cazetta AL, Bedin KC, Souza LS, Martins AC, Silva TL, Júnior OOS, Visentainer JV, Almeida VC (2016) NaOH-activated carbon of high surface area produced from guava seeds as a high-efficiency adsorbent for amoxicillin removal: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 288:778–788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.12.042

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Baysal M, Bilge K, Yılmaz B, Papila M, Yürüm Y (2018) Preparation of high surface area activated carbon from waste-biomass of sunflower piths: kinetics and equilibrium studies on the dye removal. J Environ Chem Eng 6(2):1702–1713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2018.02.020

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Zhao J, Guan B, Ma C, Hu B, Zhang H (2017) Effect of elemental sulfur in precursors on the porestructure and surface chemical characteristics of high-surface area activated carbon. J Saudi ChemSoc 21(6):691–697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2017.03.001

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Zhang Y-J, Xing Z-J, Duan Z-K, Li M, Wang Y (2014) Effects of steam activation on the pore structure and surface chemistry of activated carbon derived from bamboo waste. Appl Surf Sci 315:279–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.07.126

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Qada E, Allen SJ, Walker GM (2008) Influence of preparation conditions on the characteristics of activated carbons produced in laboratory and pilot scale systems. Chem Eng J 142(1):1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2007.11.008

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Pezoti O, Cazetta AL, Souza IPAF, Bedin KC, Martins AC, Silva TL, Almeida VC (2014) Adsorption studies of methylene blue onto ZnCl2-activated carbon produced from buriti shells (Mauritia flexuosa L.). J Ind Eng Chem 20(6):4401–4407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2014.02.007

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Okman I, Karagöz S, Tay T, Erdemb M (2014) Activated carbons from grape seeds by chemical activation with potassium carbonate and potassium hydroxide. Appl Surf Sci 293:138–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.12.117

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Islam MDA, Ahmed MJ, Khanday WA, Asif M, Hameed BH (2017) Mesoporous activated carbon prepared from NaOH activation of rattan (Lacosperma secundiflorum) hydrochar for methylene blue removal. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 138:279–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.01.010

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Li J, Han K, Li S (2018) Porous carbons from Sargassum muticum prepared by H3PO4 and KOH activation for supercapacitors. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 29(10):8480–8491. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-018-8861-2

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Buentello-Montoyaa DA, Zhanga X, Li J (2019) The use of gasification solid products as catalysts for tar reforming. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 107:399–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.03.021

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Punsuwan N, Tangsathitkulchai C, Takarada T (2015) Low temperature gasification of coconut shell with CO2 and KOH: effects of temperature, chemical loading, and introduced carbonization step on the properties of syngas and porous carbon product. Int J Chem Eng 2015(7):1–16. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/481615

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Ji Y, Li T, Zhu L, Wang X, Lin Q (2007) Preparation of activated carbons by microwave heating KOH activation. Appl Surf Sci 254(2):506–512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.06.034

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    McKee DW (1983) Mechanisms of the alkali metal catalysed gasification of carbon. Fuel 62(2):170–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(83)90192-8

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Baloch HA, Yang T, Sun H, Li J, Nizamuddin S, Li R, Kou Z, Sun Y, Bhutto AW (2015) Parametric study of pyrolysis and steam gasification of rice straw in presence of K2CO3. Korean J Chem Eng 34(1):1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11814-016-0121-7

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Takashi W, Yasuo O, Yoshiyuki N (1994) Nitrogen removal and carbonization of polyacrylonitrile with ultrafine metal particles at low temperatures. Carbon 32(2):329–334. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-6223(94)90196-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Yasumasa Y, Ouchi K (1982) Influence of alkali on the carbonization process-I. Carbonization of 3,5-dimethylphenol formaldehyde resin with NaOH. Carbon 20(1):41–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-6223(82)90072-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Xiao Y, Long C, Zheng M-T, Dong H-W, Lei B-F, Zhang H-R, Liu Y-L (2014) High-capacity porous carbons prepared by KOH activation of activated carbon for supercapacitors. Chin Chem Lett 25:865–868. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2014.05.004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Oh GH, Yun CH, Park CR (2003) Role of KOH in the one-stage KOH activation of cellulosic biomass. Carbon Sci 4(4):180–184

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Tiwari D, Bhunia H, Bajpai PK (2018) Adsorption of CO2 on KOH activated, N-enriched carbon derived from urea formaldehyde resin: kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. Appl Surf Sci 439:760–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.12.203

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Kaur B, Gupta RK, Bhunia H (2019) Chemically activated nanoporous carbon adsorbents from waste plastic for CO2 capture: breakthrough adsorption study. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 282:146–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2019.03.025

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Abouelamaiem DI, Mostazo-López MJ, He G, Patel D, Neville TP, Parkin IP, Lozano-Castelló D, Morallón E, Cazorla-Amorós D, Jorge AB, Wang R, Ji S, Titirici M-M, Shearing PR, Brett DJL (2018) New insights into the electrochemical behaviour of porous carbon electrodes for supercapacitors. J Energy Storage 19:337–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2018.08.014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Park S-J, Jung W-Y (2002) Effect of KOH activation on the formation of oxygen structure in activated carbon synthesized from polymeric precursor. J Colloid Interface Sci 250:93–98. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2002.8309

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Lee G, Park J, Hwang S, Kim J, Kim S, Kim H, Hong B (2019) Comparison of by-product gas composition by activations of activated carbon. Carbon Lett 29:263–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42823-019-00030-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Rodríguez-Reinoso F, Molina-Sabio M (1992) Activated carbons from lignocellulosic materials by chemical and/or physical activation: an overview. Carbon 30(7):1111–1118. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-6223(92)90143-k

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Aworn A, Thiravetyan P, Nakbanpote W (2008) Preparation and characteristics of agricultural waste activated carbon by physical activation having micro- and mesopores. J Anal Appl Pyrol 82:279–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2008.04.007

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Chioyama H, Luo H, Ohba T, Kanoh H (2015) Temperature-dependent double-step CO2 occlusion of K2CO3 under moist conditions. Adsorpt Sci Technol 33(3):243–250. https://doi.org/10.1260/0263-6174.33.3.243

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Lee SC, Choi BY, Ryu CK, Ahn YS, Lee TJ, Kim JC (2006) The effect of water on the activation and the CO2 capture capacities of alkali metal-based sorbents. Korean J Chem Eng 23(3):374–379. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02706737

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Kopyscinski J, Rahman M, Gupta R, Mims CA, Hill JM (2014) K2CO3 catalyzed CO2 gasification of ash-free coal. Interactions of the catalyst with carbon in N2 and CO2 atmosphere. Fuel 117:1181–1189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.07.030

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Okunev AG, Sharonov VE, Aistov YI, Parmon VN (2000) Sorption of carbon dioxide from wet gases by K2CO3-in-porous matrix: influence of the matrix nature. React Kinet Catal Lett 71(2):355. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010395630719

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Hassan AF, Youssef AM (2014) Preparation and characterization of microporous NaOH activated carbons from hydrofluoric acid leached rice husk and its application for lead(II) adsorption. Carbon Lett 15(1):57–66. https://doi.org/10.5714/cl.2014.15.1.057

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Lozano-Castello D, Calo JM, Cazorla-Amoros D, Linares-Solano A (2007) Carbon activation with KOH as explored by temperature programmed techniques, and the effects of hydrogen. Carbon 45:2529–2536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2007.08.021

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Wang L, Sun F, Hao F, Qu Z, Gao J, Liu M, Wang K, Zhao G, Qin Y (2019) A green trace K2CO3 induced catalytic activation strategy for developing coal-converted activated carbon as advanced candidate for CO2 adsorption and supercapacitors. Chem Eng J. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.123205(in press)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Yuliusman N, WidhiNugroho Y, lmiNaf’an H, Sinto J (2018) Preparation and characterization of soybean straw activated carbon for natural gas storage. E3S Web of Conf 67:03019. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186703019

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Albert B-O, Erik F, Kentaro U (2019) Effect of potassium impregnation on the emission of tar and soot from biomass gasification. Energy Proc 158:619–624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.164

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Plane JMC, Feng W, Dawkins E, Chipperfield MP, Höffner J, Janches D, Marsh DR (2014) Resolving the strange behavior of extraterrestrial potassium in the upper atmosphere. Geophys Res Lett 41(13):4753–4760. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL060334

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Chen X, Zhang H, Guo Y, Cao Y, Cheng F (2019) Activation mechanisms on potassium hydroxide enhanced microstructures development of coke powder. Chin J Chem Eng. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjche.2019.07.023(in Press)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Energy Development Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, republic of Korea (Project No. 20162010104680), and also the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) and the Center for Women In Science, Engineering and Technology (WISET) Grant funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT under the Program for Returners into R&D.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jung Eun Park.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hwang, S.Y., Lee, G.B., Kim, H. et al. Influence of mixed methods on the surface area and gas products of activated carbon. Carbon Lett. 30, 603–611 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42823-020-00130-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Activated carbon
  • Potassium hydroxide
  • Chemical activation
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Surface area