High exposure to pathogenic leptospires by the population residing in dairy farms in Hidalgo, Mexico

Abstract

Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonotic disease of unknown magnitude that has been overlooked and underreported, influenced by complex interactions established among humans, animals, and the environment; certain occupations, such as working with livestock, have an increased risk of exposure. We conducted a cross trans-sectional study in 374 serum samples obtained from workers and residents of dairy farms in the Tizayuca Basin, Hidalgo, Mexico, to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibody and the risk factors associated to this type of environment. The determination of anti-Leptospira antibodies was obtained by microscopic agglutination test. Seropositivity was defined from titles > 1:100. Seropositivity of anti-Leptospira antibodies among the population was 46.8% (176/374) (95% Cl 41.9–52.1). Thirty-nine percent (146/74) of the analyzed serum reacted to the Hardjo serovar (Sejröe serogroup). Eighty-eight percent (8/9) slaughterhouse workers tested were seropositive. Those who belonged to an ethnic group had OR 1.78 (IC 1.02–3.11, P = 0.041). Seropositivity was associated with having a secondary school level or lower, with OR 1.79 (IC 0.97–3.29, P = 0.058). Exposure to Leptospira in a dairy production farm is a risk factor for humans. Our findings can contribute to strengthening the intervention of the Public Health System to prevent this zoonosis that prevails in dairy farm environments.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Data availability

Not applicable.

References

  1. 1.

    Haake DA, Levett PN (2015) Leptospirosis in humans. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 387:65–97. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45059-8_5

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Ellis WA (2015) Animal leptospirosis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 387:99–137. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45059-8_6

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Costa F, Hagan JE, Calcagno J, Kane M, Torgerson P, Martinez-Silveira MS, Stein C, Abela-Ridder B, Ko AI (2015) Global morbidity and mortality of leptospirosis: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9:e0003898. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003898

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    World Health Organization (2017) General information: leptospirosis. WHO https://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7821:2012-informacion-general-leptospirosis&Itemid=0&lang=es. Accessed 20 May 2020

  5. 5.

    Levett PN (2001) Leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 14:296–326. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.14.2.296-326.2001

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Adler B, de la Peña MA (2010) Leptospira and leptospirosis. Vet Microbiol 140:287–296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.03.012

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Casanovas-Massana A, Pedra GG, Wunder EA, Diggle PJ, Begon M, Ko AI (2018) Quantification of Leptospira interrogans survival in soil and water microcosms. Appl Environ Microbiol 84:e00507–e00518. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00507-18

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Bierque E, Thibeaux R, Girault D, Soupé-Gilbert M-E, Goarant C (2020) A systematic review of Leptospira in water and soil environments. PLoS One 15:e0227055. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227055

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Fernandes M, Vieira ML, Carreira T, Teodósio R (2019) Sanitation workers from Portugal: is there evidence of Leptospira spp? J Infect Public Health 12:738–740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2019.02.001

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Goris MGA, Hartskeerl RA (2014) Leptospirosis serodiagnosis by the microscopic agglutination test. Curr Protoc Microbiol 32:12E.5.1–12E.5.18. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780471729259.mc12e05s32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Chirathaworn C, Inwattana R, Poovorawan Y, Suwancharoen D (2014) Interpretation of microscopic agglutination test for leptospirosis diagnosis and seroprevalence. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4:S162–S164. https://doi.org/10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C580

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Gautam R, Wu CC, Guptill LE, Potter A, Moore GE (2010) Detection of antibodies against Leptospira serovars via microscopic agglutination tests in dogs in the United States, 2000-2007. J Am Vet Med Assoc 237:293–298. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.237.3.293

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    OIE (2018) Manual Terrestre de la OIE. https://wwwoieint/es/normas/manual-terrestre/. Accessed 20 May 2020

  14. 14.

    Pulido-Villamarín A, Carreño-Beltrán G, Mercado-Reyes M, Ramírez-Bulla P (2014) Situación epidemiológica de la leptospirosis humana en Centroamérica, Suramérica y el Caribe. Univ Sci 19:247–264. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.SC19-3.selh

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Schneider MC, Leonel DG, Hamrick PN, de Caldas EP, Velásquez RT, Mendigaña-Paez FA, Gonzalez-Arrebato JC, Gerger A, Pereira MM, Aldighieri S (2017) Leptospirosis in Latin America: exploring the first set of regional data. Rev Panam Salud Públ 41:e81. https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2017.81

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Zúñiga Carrasco IR, Caro Lozano J (2013) Panorama epidemiológico de la leptospirosis, Estados Unidos Mexicanos 2000-2010. Enferm Infecc Microbiol 33:71–76

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Gracie R, Barcellos C, Magalhães M, Souza-Santos R, Guimarães-Barrocas PR (2014) Geographical scale effects on the analysis of leptospirosis determinants. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:10366–10383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010366

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Torres-Gonzalez P, Soberanis-Ramos O, Martinez-Gamboa A, Chavez-Mazari B, Barrios-Herrera MT, Torres-Rojas M, Cruz-Hervert LP, Garcia-Garcia L, Singh M, Gonzalez-Aguirre A, Ponce de Leon-Garduño A, Sifuentes-Osornio J, Bobadilla-del-Valle M (2013) Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7(4):e2177. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002177

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    StataCorp (2015) Stata statistical software: release 14. StataCorp LP, College Station

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Romero RP, Torres Barranca JI, Moles y Cervantes LP, Cisneros Puebla M, Angel, Rojas Serrania N, et al. (1999) Leptospira serological diagnosis in bovines from the quarenteen area of the Tizayuca dairy basin. Inst Nac Investig For Agríc Ganad 207

  21. 21.

    Moles L, Cisneros M, Gavaldón D, Rojas N, Torres J (2002) Estudio serológico de leptospirosis bovina en México. Rev Cubana Med Trop 54:24–27

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Chadsuthi S, Bicout DJ, Wiratsudakul A, Suwancharoen D, Petkanchanapong W, Modchang C, Triampo W, Ratanakorn P, Chavel-Monfray K (2017) Investigation on predominant Leptospira serovars and its distribution in humans and livestock in Thailand, 2010-2015. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11:e0005228. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005228

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Kamath R, Swain S, Pattanshetty S, Nair NS (2014) Studying risk factors associated with human leptospirosis. J Global Infect Dis 6:3–9. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-777X.127941

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Rajapakse S, Weeratunga PN, Balaji K, Ramchandani KC, de Silva US, Ranasinghe SA, Gunarathne D, Wijerathne PPB, Fernando N, Handunneti SM, Fernando SD (2020) Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in an endemic mixed urban and semi-urban setting—a community-based study in the district of Colombo, Sri Lanka. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14:e0008309. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008309

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Torres-Castro M, Hernández-Betancourt S, Agudelo-Flórez P, Arroyave-Sierra E, Zavala-Castro J, Puerto FI (2016) Revisión actual de la epidemiología de la leptospirosis. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 54:620–625

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Sánchez-Montes S, Espinosa-Martínez DV, Ríos-Muñoz CA, Berzunza-Cruz M, Becker I (2015) Leptospirosis in Mexico: epidemiology and potential distribution of human cases. PLoS One 10:e0133720. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133720

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Navarrete Espinosa J, Moreno Muñoz M, Sánchez Rivas B, Castrejón Velasco O (2011) Leptospirosis prevalence in a population of Yucatan, Mexico. J Pathog 2011:1–5. https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/408604

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Aguiar DM, Cavalcante GT, Camargo LMA, Labruna MB, Vasconcellos SA, Souza GO, Gennari SM (2007) Anti-Leptospira spp and anti-Brucella spp antibodies in humans from rural area of Monte Negro municipality, state of Rondônia, Brazilian Western Amazon. Braz J Microbiol 38:93–96. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822007000100019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Arteaga-Troncoso G, Jiménez-Estrada JM, Montes De Oca-Jimenez R, López-Hurtado M, Luna-Alvarez M, Hernandez-Andrade L, Moreno-Alfaro A, Galan-Herrera JF, Guerra-Infante FM (2015) Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with within-flock transmission of Leptospira interrogans in transhumant farming systems in Mexico. Epidemiol Infect 143:2894–2902. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268814003549

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Agudelo-Flórez P, Restrepo-Jaramillo BN, Arboleda-Naranjo M (2007) Situación de la leptospirosis en el Urabá antioqueño colombiano: estudio seroepidemiológico y factores de riesgo en población general urbana. Cad Saude Publ 23:2094–2102. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2007000900017

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Nájera S, Alvis N, Babilonia D, Alvarez L, Máttar S (2005) Leptospirosis ocupacional en una región del Caribe colombiano. Salud Publica Mex 47:240–244. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342005000300008

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Dreyfus A, Benschop J, Collins-Emerson J, Wilson P, Baker MG, Heuer C (2014) Sero-prevalence and risk factors for leptospirosis in abattoir workers in New Zealand. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:1756–1775. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110201756

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Lugo-Chávez BL, Velasco-Rodríguez LC, Canales-Velásquez G, Velázquez-Hernández JF, Herrera-Huerta EV (2015) Detection of antiLeptospira antibodies in a vulnerable population of Ixhuatlancillo, Veracruz. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 53:158–163

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Fish-Low CY, Balami AD, Than LTL, Ling KH, Mohd Taib N, Md. Shah A, Sekawi Z (2020) Hypocalcemia, hypochloremia, and eosinopenia as clinical predictors of leptospirosis: a retrospective study. J Infect Public Health 13:216–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2019.07.021

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank MVZ Lizeth Cruz Lara and personnel of the Leptospirosis Laboratory of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM-Xochimilco) for their support processing the sera samples, to Dr. Jésica de Lira Guerrero and Dr. Eduardo Medina Flores from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán for their support in the search for workers and convincing them to donate blood, and to the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) for the scholarship granted N° 413425 during the Master degree in Public Health.

Code availability

Not applicable.

Funding

The collection of the blood samples was financed by FOMIX-CONACYT-GOB HGO-2008-C01-96469.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation and data collection were performed by Anabel Ordaz-Vázquez and Orbelín Soberanis-Ramos. Data analysis was performed by Miguel Galarde-López, Miriam Bobadilla del Valle, and Luisa María Sánchez-Zamorano. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Miguel Galarde-López and Maria Elena Velazquez-Meza, and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Orbelín Soberanis-Ramos.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval

This protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Committee and the Research and Biosecurity Committees of the National Institute of Public Health, in Mexico Reg. No. 17CEI00120130424.

Consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible Editor: Miliane Moreira Soares de Souza

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Galarde-López, M., Bobadilla-del Valle, M., Sánchez-Zamorano, L.M. et al. High exposure to pathogenic leptospires by the population residing in dairy farms in Hidalgo, Mexico. Braz J Microbiol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00453-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Leptospira
  • Seroprevalence
  • Leptospirosis
  • MAT
  • Zoonoses
  • Occupational health