Species of fungi belonging to the order Mucorales can be found everywhere in the environment. Gilbertella persicaria, which belongs to this order, have often been isolated from fruits and in water systems. However, there has been no report of isolation of this fungus from human samples. During a gut mycobiome study, from the Segamat community, Gilbertella persicaria was isolated from a human fecal sample and was characterized through a series of morphological assessment, biochemical tests, and molecular techniques. The isolate produced a white velvety surface that turned grayish after 24 h. Although no biofilm production was observed, the results indicated that the isolate could form calcium oxalate crystals, produced urease, and was resistant to low pH. The isolate was sensitive to amphotericin but resistant to voriconazole and itraconazole. The features of this fungus that could help in its survival in the human gut are also discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Das Mehrotra M (1964) Fruit rot of tomato caused by Gilbertella persicaria. Sydowia 17:17–19
Ginting C, Zehr E, Westcott S (1996) Inoculum sources and characterization of isolates of Gilbertella persicaria from peach fruit in South Carolina. Plant Dis 80:1129–1134
I. Cruz-Lachica, I. Marquez-Zequera, R. S. Garcia-Estrada, J. A. Carillo-Fasio, J. Leon-Felix, and R. Allende-Molar, “First Report of Gilbertella persicaria Causing Papaya Fruit Rot,” Plant Dis., vol. 100, no. 1, p. 227, 2015.
Guo LW, Wu YX, Mao ZC, Ho HH, He YQ (2012) Storage Rot of Dragon Fruit Caused by Gilbertella persicaria. Plant Dis 96(12):1826
Pinho DB, Pereira OL, Soares DJ (2014) First report of Gilbertella persicaria as the cause of soft rot of fruit of Syzygium cumini. Australas Plant Dis Notes 9(1):14–17
Vieira JCB, Camara MPS, Bezerra JDP, Motta CMS, Machado AR (2018) First Report of Gilbertella persicaria Causing Soft Rot in Eggplant Fruit in Brazil. Plant Dis 102(6):1172
Eddy ED (1925) A storage rot of peaches caused by new species of Choanephora. Phytopath 15:607–610
Hesseltine CW (1960) Gilbertella gen. Nov. (Mucorales). Bot Club 87(1):21–30
Lee SH, Nguyen TTT, Lee HB (2018) Isolation and characterization of two rare Mucoralean species with specific habitats. Mycobiology 46(3):205–214
Schulze J, Sonnenborn U (2009) Yeasts in the gut: from commensals to infectious agents. Dtsch Arztebl 106(51–52):837–842
Xu J, Gordon JI (2003) Honor thy symbionts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(18):10452–10459
Qin J et al (2010) Europe PMC funders group Europe PMC funders author manuscripts a human gut microbial gene catalog established by metagenomic sequencing. Nature 464(7285):59–65
Hallen-Adams HE, Kachman SD, Kim J, Legge RM, Martínez I (2015) Fungi inhabiting the healthy human gastrointestinal tract: a diverse and dynamic community. Fungal Ecol 15:9–17
Hallen-Adams HE, Suhr MJ (2017) Fungi in the healthy human gastrointestinal tract. Virulence 8(3):352–358
E. Ksiezopolska and T. Gabaldón, “Evolutionary emergence of drug resistance in candida opportunistic pathogens,” Genes (Basel)., vol. 9, no. 9, 2018
WMA and World Medical Association, 2013“WMA DECLARATION OF HELSINKI – ETHICAL PRINCIPLES FOR Scientific Requirements and Research Protocols,” World Med. Assoc., no. June 1964, pp. 29–32
Siqueira VM, Lima N (2013) Biofilm formation by filamentous Fungi recovered from a water system. J Mycol 2013:1–9
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, 2002“Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi. Approved standard. NCCLS document M38-A,” Villanova, Pa,
Cantón E, Espinel-Ingroff A, Pemán J (2009) Trends in antifungal susceptibility testing using CLSI reference and commercial methods. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther 7(1):107–119
Jin J, Wickes BL (2004) Simple chemical extraction method for DNA isolation from. Society 42(9):4293–4296
Whitney KD, Arnott HJ (1986) Morphology and development of calcium oxalate deposits in Gilbertella persicaria(Mucorales). Mycologia 78(1):42–51
Uloth MB, Clode PL, You MP, Barbetti MJ (2015) Calcium oxalate crystals: an integral component of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum/Brassica carinata pathosystem. PLoS One 10(3):1–15
Whitney KD, Arnott HJ (1988) The effect of calcium on Mycelial growth and calcium oxalate crystal formation in Gilbertella persicaria (Mucorales). Mycologia 80(5):707–715
Dutton MV, Evans CS, Atkey PT, Wood DA (1993) Oxalate production by Basidiomycetes, including the white-rot species Coriolus versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 39(1):5–10
Yang J, Tewari JP, Verma PR (1993) Calcium oxalate crystal formation in Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 culture and infected crucifer tissue: relationship between host calcium and resistance. Mycol Res 97(12):1516–1522
Nakata PA (2003) Advances in our understanding of calcium oxalate crystal formation and function in plants. Plant Sci 164(6):901–909
Hess D, Coker D, Loutsch JM, Russ J (2008) Production of oxalates in vitro by microbes isolated from rock surfaces with prehistoric paints in the lower Pecos region, Texas. Geoarchaeology 23(1):3–11
H. J. Arnott, “Calcium oxalate in fungi. In: Khan SR, ed. Calcium oxalate in biological systems,” Boca Raton, Florida, 1995
Menon RR et al (2019) Screening of Fungi for potential application of self-healing concrete. Sci Rep 9(1):1–12
Takó M, Kotogán A, Krisch J, Vágvölgyi C, Mondal KC, Papp T (2015) Enhanced production of industrial enzymes in Mucoromycotina fungi during solid-state fermentation of agricultural wastes/by-products. Acta Biol Hung 66(3):348–360
M. Tako, 2011“Analysis of Beta-glucosidases from Zygomycetes Fungi: purification and characterization of the enzyme, molecular and functional analysis of the coding genes,”
Rutherford JC (2014) The emerging role of urease as a general microbial virulence factor. PLoS Pathog 10(5):1–3
Cox GM, Mukherjee J, Cole GT, Casadevall A, Perfect JR (2000) Urease as a virulence factor in experimental cryptococcosis. Infect Immun 68(2):443–448
Mirbod-Donovan F, Schaller R, Hung CY, Xue J, Reichard U, Cole GT (2006) Urease produced by Coccidioides posadasii contributes to the virulence of this respiratory pathogen. Infect Immun 74(1):504–515
Dannaoui E, Mouton JW, Meis JF, Verweij PE, Eurofung Network (2002) Efficacy of antifungal therapy in a nonneutropenic murine model of zygomycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46(6):1953–1959
Sabatelli F, Patel R, Mann PA, Mendrick CA, Norris CC, Hare R, Loebenberg D, Black TA, McNicholas PM (2006) In vitro activities of posaconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B against a large collection of clinically important molds and yeasts. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50(6):2009–2015
Almyroudis NG, Sutton DA, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG, Kusne S (2007) In vitro susceptibilities of 217 clinical isolates of zygomycetes to conventional and new antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51(7):2587–2590
Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Victoria Castelli M, Cuesta I, Monzón AH, Cuenca-Estrella M, Rodriguez-Tudela JL (2009) Activity of posaconazole and other antifungal agents against mucorales strains identified by sequencing of internal transcribed spacers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53(4):1686–1689
Caetano LA, Faria T, Springer J, Loeffler J, Viegas C (2019) Antifungal-resistant Mucorales in different indoor environments. Mycology 10(2):75–83
Caramalho R, Tyndall JDA, Monk BC, Larentis T, Lass-Flörl C, Lackner M (2017) Intrinsic short-tailed azole resistance in mucormycetes is due to an evolutionary conserved aminoacid substitution of the lanosterol 14α-demethylase. Sci Rep 7(1):3–12
Singh R, Shivaprakash MR, Chakrabarti A (2011) Biofilm formation by zygomycetes: quantification, structure and matrix composition. Microbiology 157(9):2611–2618
The authors wish to thank Monash University Malaysia, Tropical Medicine and Biology Multidisciplinary Platform and the South East Asia Community Observatory for their support.
This work was supported by Monash University Malaysia multidisciplinary project funding [LG-2017-01-SCI], Monash University Australia funding [SCI/MUA/02–2019/001], the School of Science Monash University Malaysia, and discretionary funding from Tropical Medicine and Biology Multidisciplinary Platform.
Conflict of interest
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
Ethical approval was given by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (MUHREC, Project ID/Approval no.: 1516) which is per the WMA Declaration of Helsinki  and complied with international and institutional standards.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Responsible Editor: Celia Maria de Almeida Soares.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Huët, M.A.L., Wong, L.W., Goh, C.B.S. et al. First reported case of Gilbertella persicaria in human stool: outcome of a community study from Segamat, Johor, Malaysia. Braz J Microbiol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00323-z
- Gilbertella persicaria
- Human gut
- Fecal sample