Draft genomic sequence of Armillaria gallica 012m: insights into its symbiotic relationship with Gastrodia elata

Abstract

Armillaria species (Basidiomycota, Physalacriaceae) are well known as plant pathogens related to serious root rot disease on various trees in forests and plantations. Interestingly, some Armillaria species are essential symbionts of the rare Chinese medicinal herb Gastrodia elata, a rootless and leafless orchid used for over 2000 years. In this work, an 87.3-M draft genome of Armillaria gallica 012m strain, which was symbiotic with G. elata, was assembled. The genome includes approximately 23.6% repetitive sequences and encodes 26,261 predicted genes. In comparison with other four genomes of Armillaria, the following gene families related to pathogenicity/saprophytic phase, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, carbohydrate-active enzyme AA3, and hydrophobins, were significantly contracted in A. gallica 012m. These characteristics may be beneficial for G. elata to get less injuries. The genome-guided analysis of differential expression between rhizomorph (RH) and vegetative mycelium (VM) showed that a total of 2549 genes were differentially expressed, including 632 downregulated genes and 1917 upregulated genes. In the RH, most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to pathogenicity were significantly upregulated. To further elucidate gene function, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs significantly grouped into monooxygenase activity, hydrolase activity, glucosidase activity, extracellular region, fungal cell wall, response to xenobiotic stimulus, response to toxic substance, etc. These phenomena indicate that RH had better infection ability than VM. The infection ability of RH may be beneficial for G. elata to obtain nutrition, because the rhizomorph constantly infected the nutritional stems of G. elata and formed the hyphae that can be digested by G. elata. These results clarified the characteristics of A. gallica 012m and the reason why the strain 012m can establish a symbiotic relationship with G. elata in some extent from the perspective of genomics.

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Notes

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    https://github.com/Nextomics/NextPolish/

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    www.repeatmasker.org

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    www.repeatmasker.org/RepeatModeler/

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    github.com/chenlianfu/geta

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    https://github.com/rambaut/figtree

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    evomicsorg.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/cafe_tutorial-1.pdf

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Funding

This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81860624 and 31760096) and Yunnan Innovative Research Team for Discovery and Comprehensive Utilization of Functional Small Molecules in Medicinal Plants.

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Correspondence to Gang Du or Lishuxin Huang.

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Zhan, M., Tian, M., Wang, W. et al. Draft genomic sequence of Armillaria gallica 012m: insights into its symbiotic relationship with Gastrodia elata. Braz J Microbiol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00317-x

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Keywords

  • Armillaria
  • Symbionts
  • Genome comparison analyses
  • Differential expression analysis