Rotaviruses are members of the family Reoviridae and are a common cause of acute diarrhea in many mammalian and avian species. They are non-enveloped icosahedral particles and their genome comprises 11 segments of double-stranded RNA, which encodes six structural proteins (VP1–4, VP6–7) and six nonstructural proteins (NSP1–6). Genotypes are defined based upon the diversity found in these genes and viral characterization plays a central role on epidemiological studies and prevention. Here we investigate the distribution of Brazilian RVAs genotypes in 8 chicken samples collected between 2008 and 2015 from different regions by RT-PCR, partial (Sanger) nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis from all rotavirus genes. Although the identified genotypes were typical from avian host species, when analyzed together, they form novel genetic constellations: G19-P-I11-R6-C6-M7-A16-N6-T8-E10-H8 and G19-P-I4-R4-C4-M4-A16-N4-T4-E4-H4. This study highlights that avian rotaviruses are widespread among commercial farms in Brazil, and the co-circulation of at least two different genomic constellations indicates that may present a way bigger genetic variability, that can be increased by the possible transmission events from other birds, lack of specific preventive measures, as well as the different viral evolution mechanisms.
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This work was supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP)—Grant 2014/13531–7, Brazilian Government, by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code PROEX—Grant 1841/2016, and by Swedish Research Council—Project No. 2013–6772.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was approved by the Committee on Ethics for Animal Trials of the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, under protocol number 3070/2013.
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Beserra, L.A.R., Barbosa, C.M., Berg, M. et al. Genome constellations of rotavirus a isolated from avian species in Brazil, 2008–2015. Braz J Microbiol 51, 1363–1375 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00259-4
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