Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable element of living organisms and plays an irreplaceable role in the growth of crops. As a non-renewable element, the reserves of phosphorus rock, the primary source of phosphorus in nature, are facing the danger of exhaustion. As a phosphorus-rich solid waste, sewage sludge has gradually become a main renewable phosphorus resource. The combination of effective recycling of phosphorus and innocuous disposal of sewage sludge can not only alleviate the crisis of phosphate rock resources shortage but also reduce the environmental hazards of sewage sludge. This study reviewed the application of thermal treatment in sewage sludge disposal. Besides the advantages of reducing waste volume, decomposing organic pollutants, generating valuable byproducts, it can also significantly promote the recycling of phosphorus. Studies have shown that thermal treatment (incineration, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal) can enrich phosphorus in the products and transform the speciation of phosphorus to increase the bioavailability. The physical and chemical properties of different thermal treatment products and the speciation of phosphorus are different. The transformation and migration of phosphorus affect the efficiency of subsequent phosphorus recovery and reuse. At the same time, this study compared several general phosphorus recovery methods (wet extraction, thermochemical, and electrochemical methods), and further summarized the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and application conditions. This review summarizes recent advances in phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge, identifies challenges and knowledge gaps, and provides the foundation for future research aimed at achieving efficient, economic, and eco-friendly reclamation of phosphorus in sewage sludge.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Desmidt E, Ghyselbrecht K, Zhang Y, et al. Global phosphorus scarcity and full-scale P-recovery techniques: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol. 2015;45(4):336–84.
Cordell D, Drangert JO, White S. The story of phosphorus: global food security and food for thought. Global Environ Change. 2009;19(2):305.
De-Bashan LE. Bashan, recent advances in removing phosphorus from wastewater and its future use as fertilizer (1997–2003). Water Res. 2004;38:4222–46.
SøRensen BL, Dall OL, Habib K. Environmental and resource implications of phosphorus recovery from waste activated sludge. Waste Manag. 2015;45:391–9.
Liu Y, Villalba G, Ayres RU, et al. Global phosphorus flows and environmental impacts from a consumption perspective. J Ind Ecol. 2008;12(2):229–47.
Chowdhury RB, Moore GA, Weatherley AJ, et al. A review of recent substance flow analyses of phosphorus to identify priority management areas at different geographical scales. Resour Conserv Recycl. 2014;83:213–28.
Koppelaar RHEM, Weikard HP. Assessing phosphate rock depletion and phosphorus recycling options. Glob Environ Change. 2013;23(6):1454–66.
Suh S, Yee S. Phosphorus use-efficiency of agriculture and food system in the US. Chemosphere. 2011;84(6):806–13.
Dawson CJ, Hilton J. Fertiliser availability in a resource-limited world: production and recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus. Food Policy. 2012;36(1):S14–22.
Mineral Commodity Summaries 2019. In: Tolcin AC, editor. Mineral Commodity Summaries, Reston, VA; 2019. https://doi.org/10.3133/70202434.
Shepherd JG, Kleemann R, Bahri-Esfahani J, et al. The future of phosphorus in our hands. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst. 2016;104(3):281–7.
Cordell D, Rosemarin A, Schrder JJ, et al. Towards global phosphorus security: a systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options. Chemosphere. 2011;84(6):747–58.
Cieślik B, Konieczka P. A review of phosphorus recovery methods at various steps of wastewater treatment and sewage sludge management. The concept of “no solid waste generation” and analytical methods. J Clean Prod. 2017;142:1728–40.
Fonts I, Gea G, Azuara M, et al. Sewage sludge pyrolysis for liquid production: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2012;16(5):2781–805.
Herzel H, Krüger O, Hermann L, et al. Sewage sludge ash—a promising secondary phosphorus source for fertilizer production. Sci Total Environ. 2016;542(Pt B):1136–43.
Lo IMC, Zhou WW, Lee KM. Geotechnical characterization of dewatered sewage sludge for landfill. Revue Canadienne De Géotechnique. 2002;39(5):1139–49.
Raheem A, Sikarwar VS, He J, et al. Opportunities and challenges in sustainable treatment and resource reuse of sewage sludge: a review. Chem Eng J. 2017;337:616–41.
Wu MH, Lin CL, Huang WC, et al. Characteristics of pervious concrete using incineration bottom ash in place of sandstone graded material. Constr Build Mater. 2016;111:618–24.
Samolada MC, Zabaniotou AA. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece. Waste Manag. 2014;34(2):411–20.
Frišták V, Pipíška M, Soja G. Pyrolysis treatment of sewage sludge: a promising way to produce phosphorus fertilizer. J Clean Prod. 2018;172:1772–8.
Lehmann J, Joseph S. Biochar for environmental management science. Technol Implement. 2015;25:15801–11. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203762264.
Huang R, Fang C, Lu X, et al. Transformation of phosphorus during (Hydro)thermal treatments of solid biowastes: reaction mechanisms and implications for P reclamation and recycling. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;51(18):10284–98.
Huang R, Tang Y. Speciation dynamics of phosphorus during (hydro)thermal treatments of sewage sludge. Environ Sci Technol. 2015;49:14466–74.
Xue X, Chen D, Song X, et al. Hydrothermal and pyrolysis treatment for sewage sludge: choice from product and from energy benefit. Energy Proc. 2015;66:301–4.
Carbonell G, Pro J, Gómez N, et al. Sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil: ecotoxicological effects on representative soil organisms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009;72(4):1319.
Laturnus F, von Arnold K, Grøn C. Organic contaminants from sewage sludge applied to agricultural soils. False alarm regarding possible problems for food safety? Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2007;14:53–60.
Harrison EZ, Oakes SR, Hysell M, et al. Organic chemicals in sewage sludges. Sci Total Environ. 2006;367(2–3):481–97.
Suciu NA, Lamastra L, Trevisan M. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer. Waste Manag. 2015;41:119–27.
Tarayre C, Clercq LD, Charlier R, et al. New perspectives for the design of sustainable bioprocesses for phosphorus recovery from waste. Biores Technol. 2016;206:264–74.
Zhou K, Barjenbruch M, Kabbe C, et al. Phosphorus recovery from municipal and fertilizer wastewater: China’s potential and perspective. J Environ Sci. 2016;52:10.
Hartman M, Svoboda K, Pohořely M, et al. Combustion of dried sewage sludge in a fluidized-bed reactor. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2005;44(10):3432–41.
Hossain MK, Strezov V, Chan KY, et al. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on production and nutrient properties of wastewater sludge biochar. J Environ Manage. 2011;92(1):223–8.
Belevi H, Langmeier M. Factors determining the element behavior in municipal solid waste incinerators. 2. Laboratory experiments. Environ Sci Technol. 2000;34(12):2507–12.
Wang T, Camps-Arbestain M, Hedley M, et al. Predicting phosphorus bioavailability from high-ash biochars. Plant Soil. 2012;357(1–2):173–87.
Guedes P, Couto N, Ottosen LM, et al. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process. Waste Manag. 2014;34(5):886–92.
Pettersson A, Amand LE, Steenari BM. Leaching of ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge and wood—Part I: recovery of phosphorus. Biomass Bioenerg. 2008;32(3):224–35.
Biswas BK, Harada H, Ohto K, et al. Leaching of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash by means of acid extraction followed by adsorption on orange waste gel. J Environ Sci. 2009;21(12):1753–60.
Ottosen LM, Kirkelund GM. Jensen, Extracting phosphorous from incinerated sewage sludge ash rich in iron or aluminum. Chemophere. 2013;91:963–9.
Weigand H, Bertau M, Hübner W, et al. RecoPhos: full-scale fertilizer production from sewage sludge ash. Waste Manag. 2013;33(3):540–4.
Couto N, Guedes P, Ferreira AR, et al. Electrodialytic process of nanofiltration concentrates—phosphorus recovery and microcystins removal. Electrochim Acta. 2015;181:200–7.
Takahashi M, Kato S, Shima H, et al. Technology for recovering phosphorus from incinerated wastewater treatment sludge. Chemosphere. 2001;44(1):23–9.
Wang Q, Li J-S, Tang P, et al. Sustainable reclamation of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash as value-added struvite by chemical extraction, purification and crystallization. J Clean Prod. 2018;181:717–25.
Li R, Zhang Z, Li Y, et al. Transformation of apatite phosphorus and non-apatite inorganic phosphorus during incineration of sewage sludge. Chemosphere. 2015;141:57–61.
Adam C, Peplinski B, Michaelis M, et al. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery. Waste Manag. 2009;29(3):1122–8.
Donatello S. Characteristics of incinerated sewage sludge ashes: potential for pozzolanic material in construction products. Imp Coll Lond. 2009. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.33926.63040.
Petzet S, Peplinski B, Cornel P. On wet chemical phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash by acidic or alkaline leaching and an optimized combination of both. Water Res. 2012;46(12):3769–80.
Wzorek Z, Jodko M, Gorazda K, et al. Extraction of phosphorus compounds from ashes from thermal processing of sewage sludge. J Loss Prev Process Ind. 2006;19(1):39–50.
Thygesen AM, Wernberg O, Skou E, et al. Effect of incineration temperature on phosphorus availability in bio-ash from manure. Environ Technol. 2011;32(6):633–8.
Nakakubo T, Tokai A, Ohno K. Comparative assessment of technological systems for recycling sludge and food waste aimed at greenhouse gas emissions reduction and phosphorus recovery. J Clean Prod. 2012;32:157–72.
Yuan Z, Pratt S, Batstone DJ. Phosphorus recovery from wastewater through microbial processes. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2012;23(6):878–83.
Zhang L, Ninomiya Y. Transformation of phosphorus during combustion of coal and sewage sludge and its contributions to PM10. Proc Combust Inst. 2007;31(2):2847–54.
Zhao Y, Ren Q, Na Y. Promotion of cotton stalk on bioavailability of phosphorus in municipal sewage sludge incineration ash. Fuel. 2018;214:351–5.
Ren Q, Li L. Co-combustion of agricultural straw with municipal sewage sludge in a fluidized bed: role of phosphorus in potassium behavior. Energy Fuels. 2015;29(7):4321–7.
Beck J, Unterberger S. The behaviour of phosphorus in the flue gas during the combustion of high-phosphate fuels. Fuel. 2006;85(10):1541–9.
Han J, Kanchanapiya P, Sakano T, et al. The behaviour of phosphorus and heavy metals in sewage sludge ashes. Int J Environ Pollut. 2009;37(4):357.
Saleh Bairq ZA, Li R, Li Y, et al. New advancement perspectives of chloride additives on enhanced heavy metals removal and phosphorus fixation during thermal processing of sewage sludge. J Clean Prod. 2018;188:185–94.
Feng H, Zheng M, Dong H, et al. Three-dimensional honeycomb-like hierarchically structured carbon for high-performance supercapacitors derived from high-ash-content sewage sludge. J Mater Chem A. 2015;3:15225–34.
Liu XQ, Ding HS, Wang YY, et al. Pyrolytic temperature dependent and ash catalyzed formation of sludge char with ultra-high adsorption to 1-Naphthol. Environ Sci Technol. 2016;50:536.
Yuan S-J, Dai X-H. Heteroatom-doped porous carbon derived from “all-in-one” precursor sewage sludge for electrochemical energy storage. RSC Adv. 2015;5:45827–35.
Zhang J, Lü F, Zhang H, et al. Multiscale visualization of the structural and characteristic changes of sewage sludge biochar oriented towards potential agronomic and environmental implication. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9406.
Azuara M, Kersten SRA, Kootstra AMJ. Recycling phosphorus by fast pyrolysis of pig manure: concentration and extraction of phosphorus combined with formation of value-added pyrolysis products. Biomass Bioenerg. 2013;49:171–80.
Bridle TR, Pritchard D. Energy and nutrient recovery from sewage sludge via pyrolysis. Water Sci Technol. 2004;50(9):169–75.
Toor SS, Rosendahl L, Rudolf A. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: a review of subcritical water technologies. Energy. 2011;36(5):2328–42.
Kruse A. Hydrothermal biomass gasification. J Supercrit Fluids. 2009;47(3):391–9.
Libra JA, Ro KS, Kammann C, et al. Kern, Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass residuals: a comparative review of the chemistry, processes and applications of wet and dry pyrolysis. Biofuels. 2011;2:71–106.
Uchimiya M, Hiradate S. Pyrolysis temperature-dependent changes in dissolved phosphorus speciation of plant and manure biochars. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62(8):1802–9.
Xu G, Zhang Y, Shao H, et al. Pyrolysis temperature affects phosphorus transformation in biochar: chemical fractionation and 31P NMR analysis. Sci Total Environ. 2016;569–570:65–72.
Meng X, Huang Q, Gao H, et al. Improved utilization of phosphorous from sewage sludge (as fertilizer) after treatment by low-temperature combustion. Waste Manag. 2018;80:349–58.
Uchimiya M, Hiradate S, Antal MJ. Dissolved phosphorus speciation of flash carbonization, slow pyrolysis, and fast pyrolysis biochars. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2015;3(7):1642–9.
Bläsing M, Zini M, Müller MJE. Influence of feedstock on the release of potassium, sodium, chlorine, sulfur, and phosphorus species during gasification of wood and biomass shells. Energy Fuels. 2013;2013(27):1439–45.
Bourgel C, Véron E, Poirier J, et al. Behavior of phosphorus and other inorganics during the gasification of sewage sludge. Energy Fuels. 2011;25(12):5707–17.
Qian TT, Li DC, Jiang H. Thermochemical Behavior of Tris(2-Butoxyethyl) Phosphate (TBEP) during Co-pyrolysis with Biomass. Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48(18):10734–42.
Liu J, Yang J, Cade-Menun BJ, et al. Complementary phosphorus speciation in agricultural soils by sequential fractionation, solution P nuclear magnetic resonance, and phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. J Environ Qual. 2013;42:1763–70.
Nanzer S, Oberson A, Huthwelker T, et al. The molecular environment of phosphorus in sewage sludge ash: implications for bioavailability. J Environ Qual. 2014;43(3):1050.
Qian TT, Jiang H. Migration of phosphorus in sewage sludge during different thermal treatment processes. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2014;2(6):1411–9.
Wisawapipat W, Charoensri K, Runglerttrakoolchai J. Solid-phase speciation and solubility of phosphorus in an acid sulfate paddy soil during soil reduction and reoxidation as affected by oil palm ash and biochar. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65(4):704–10.
Huang R, Tang Y. Evolution of phosphorus complexation and mineralogy during (hydro)thermal treatments of activated and anaerobically digested sludge: Insights from sequential extraction and P K-edge XANES. Water Res. 2016;100:439–47.
Kleemann R, Chenoweth J, Clift R, et al. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysed sewage sludge char (PSSC). Waste Manag. 2017;60:201–10.
Adnan A, Karin HA, Gerhard S, et al. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation, and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Front Plant Sci. 2015;6:529.
Frišták V, Soja G. Effect of wood-based biochar and sewage sludge amendments for soil phosphorus availability. Nova Biotechmologica et Chimica. 2015;14(1):104–15. https://doi.org/10.1515/nbec-2015-0020.
Karer J, Wawra A, Zehetner F, et al. Effects of biochars and compost mixtures and inorganic additives on immobilisation of heavy metals in contaminated soils. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2015;226(10):342.
Bridgwater AV. Review of fast pyrolysis of biomass and product upgrading. Biomass Bioenerg. 2012;38:68–94.
Funke A, Ziegler F. Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass: a summary and discussion of chemical mechanisms for process engineering. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin. 2010;4(2):160–77.
Zumbühl K. Hydrothermal carbonization as an energy-efficient alternative to established drying technologies for sewage sludge: a feasibility study on a laboratory scale. Fuels. 2013;27:454–60.
Maria-Magdalena T, Markus AJCSR. Chemistry and materials options of sustainable carbon materials made by hydrothermal carbonization. Chem Soc Rev. 2009;39:103–16.
Titirici MM, White RJ, Falco C, et al. Black perspectives for a green future: hydrothermal carbons for environment protection and energy storage. Energy Environ Sci. 2012;5(5):6796.
Valdez PJ, Nelson MC, Wang HY, et al. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis sp.: systematic study of process variables and analysis of the product fractions. Biomass Bioenerg. 2012;46:317–31.
Pavlovic I, Knez Z, Skerget, Mojca A. Hydrothermal reactions of agricultural and food processing wastes in sub- and supercritical water: a review of fundamentals, mechanisms and state of research. J Agric Food Chem 2013;61(34):8003–8025.
Funke A, Ziegler F. Heat of reaction measurements for hydrothermal carbonization of biomass. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102(16):7595–8.
Vom Eyser C, Palmu K, Otterpohl R, et al. Determination of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge and biochar from hydrothermal carbonization using different quantification approaches and matrix effect studies. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015;407(3):821–30.
Vom Eyser C, Palmu K, Schmidt TC, et al. Pharmaceutical load in sewage sludge and biochar produced by hydrothermal carbonization. Sci Total Environ. 2015;537:180–6.
Heilmann SM, Jader LR, Harned LA, et al. Hydrothermal carbonization of microalgae II. Fatty acid, char, and algal nutrient products. Appl Energy. 2011;88(10):3286–90.
Heilmann SM, Jader LR, Sadowsky MJ, et al. Hydrothermal carbonization of distiller’s grains. Biomass Bioenergy. 2011;35(7):2526–33.
Heilmann SM, Molde JS, Timler JG, et al. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures. Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48:10323–9.
Zhu W, Xu ZR, Li L, et al. The behavior of phosphorus in sub- and super-critical water gasification of sewage sludge. Chem Eng J. 2011;171(1):190–6.
Shi W, Liu C, Ding D, et al. Immobilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge by using subcritical water technology. Biores Technol. 2013;137:18–24.
Bright DA, Healey N. Contaminant risks from biosolids land application—contemporary organic contaminant levels in digested sewage sludge from five treatment plants in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia. Environ Pollut. 2003;126(1):39–49.
Cordell D, Rosemarin A, Schrder JJ, et al. Towards global phosphorus security: a systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options. Chemosphere. 2011;84(6):747–58.
Rajasulochana P, Preethy V. Comparison on efficiency of various techniques in treatment of waste and sewage water—a comprehensive review. Resour Effic Technol. 2016;2(4):175–84.
Sartorius C, von Horn J, Tettenborn F. Tettenborn, Phosphorus recovery from wastewater–expert survey on present use and future potential. Water Environ Res. 2012;84:313–22.
Egle L, Rechberger H, Zessner M. Overview and description of technologies for recovering phosphorus from municipal wastewater. Resour Conserv Recycl. 2015;105:S0921344915300938.
Rittmann BE, Brooke M, Paul W, et al. Capturing the lost phosphorus. Chemosphere. 2011;84(6):846–53.
Hunger S, Sims JT, Sparks DL. How accurate is the assessment of phosphorus pools in poultry litter by sequential extraction? J Environ Qual. 2005;34(1):382.
Donatello S, Cheeseman CR. Recycling and recovery routes for incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA): a review. Waste Manag. 2013;33(11):2328–40.
Donatello S, Tong D, Cheeseman C. Production of technical grade phosphoric acid from incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA). Waste Manag. 2010;30(8):1634–42.
Fang L, Li JS, Donatello S, et al. Recovery of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash by combined two-step extraction and selective precipitation. Chem Eng J. 2018;348:74–83.
Fang L, Li JS, Guo MZ, et al. Phosphorus recovery and leaching of trace elements from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA). Chemosphere. 2018;193:278–87.
Franz M. Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA). Waste Manag. 2007;28(10):1809–18.
Li JS, Chen Z, Wang QM, et al. Change in re-use value of incinerated sewage sludge ash due to chemical extraction of phosphorus. Waste Manag. 2018;74:72.
Stasta P, Boran J, Bebar L, et al. Thermal processing of sewage sludge. Appl Therm Eng. 2006;26(13):1420–6.
Li Y, Cui R, Yang T, et al. Distribution characteristics of heavy metals in different size fly ash from a sewage sludge circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Energy Fuels. 2017;31(2):2044–51.
Petzet S, Peplinski B, Bodkhe SY, et al. Recovery of phosphorus and aluminium from sewage sludge ash by a new wet chemical elution process (SESAL-Phos-recovery process). Water Sci Technol. 2011;64(3):693.
Stark K, Plaza E, Hultman B. Phosphorus release from ash, dried sludge and sludge residue from supercritical water oxidation by acid or base. Chemosphere. 2006;62(5):832.
Levlin E, Hultman B. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge-Ideas for further studies to improve leaching. Stockholm, Sweden: Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering; 2004. p. 61–77.
Li M, Tang Y, Lu XY, et al. Phosphorus speciation in sewage sludge and the sludge-derived biochar by a combination of experimental methods and theoretical simulation. Water Res. 2018;140:90.
Ye Y, Ngo HH, Guo W, et al. Insight into chemical phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater. Sci Total Environ. 2017;576:159–71.
Antonini S, Arias MA, Eichert T, et al. Greenhouse evaluation and environmental impact assessment of different urine-derived struvite fertilizers as phosphorus sources for plants. Chemosphere. 2012;89(10):1202–10.
César P, Rafael S, Cristina C, et al. Greenhouse evaluation of struvite and sludges from municipal wastewater treatment works as phosphorus sources for plants. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(20):8206–12.
Ryu HD, Lim CS, Kang MK, Lee S. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage. J Hazard Mater. 2012;221:248–55.
Yu Y, Lei Z, Yuan T, et al. Simultaneous phosphorus and nitrogen recovery from anaerobically digested sludge using a hybrid system coupling hydrothermal pretreatment with MAP precipitation. Biores Technol. 2017;243:634.
Kataki S, West H, Clarke M, et al. Phosphorus recovery as struvite: recent concerns for use of seed, alternative Mg source, nitrogen conservation and fertilizer potential. Resour Conserv Recyc. 2016;107:142–56.
Shu L, Schneider P, Jegatheesan V, et al. An economic evaluation of phosphorus recovery as struvite from digester supernatant. Biores Technol. 2006;97(17):2211–6.
Yan H, Shih K. Effects of calcium and ferric ions on struvite precipitation: a new assessment based on quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis. Water Res. 2016;95:310–8.
Corre KSL, Valsami-Jones E, Hobbs P, et al. Impact of calcium on struvite crystal size, shape and purity. J Cryst Growth. 2005;283(3–4):514–22.
Muryanto S, Bayuseno AP. Influence of Cu2+ and Zn2+ as additives on crystallization kinetics and morphology of struvite. Powder Technol. 2014;253:602–7.
Xu H, He P, Gu W, et al. Recovery of phosphorus as struvite from sewage sludge ash. J Environ Sci. 2012;24:1533–8.
Pastor L, Marti N, Bouzas A, et al. Sewage sludge management for phosphorus recovery as struvite in EBPR wastewater treatment plants. Biores Technol. 2008;99(11):4817–24.
Ohbuchi A, Sakamoto J, Kitano M, et al. X-ray fluorescence analysis of sludge ash from sewage disposal plant. X-Ray Spectrom. 2008;37(5):544–50.
Adam C, Kley G. Simon, thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge aiming at marketable P-fertilisers. Mater Trans. 2007;48(12):3056–61.
Vogel C, Adam C. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash by thermochemical treatment with gaseous hydrochloric acid. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45(17):7445–50.
Fraissler G, JöLler M, Mattenberger H, et al. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations concerning the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by chlorination. Chem Eng Process. 2009;48(1):152–64.
Havukainen J, Mai TN, Hermann L, et al. Linnanen, Potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment. Waste Manag. 2016;49:221–9.
Mattenberger H, Fraissler G, Brunner T, Herk P, Hermann L, Obernberger I. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser: variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment. Waste Manag. 2008;28:2709–22.
Kleemann R, Morse S. Sustainable phosphorus management—a global transdisciplinary roadmap In: Scholz RW, Roy A, Brand FS, et al. ISBN: 978-94-007-7249-6. Ecol Econ. 2015;114(3):245–246.
Adam C, Michaelis M, Kley G, et al. Reaction sequences in the thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes revealed by X-ray powder diffraction—a contribution to the European project SUSAN. Zeitschrift Für Kristallographie Supplements. 2009;2009(30):459–64.
Vogel C, Adam C, Peplinski B, et al. Chemical reactions during the preparation of P and NPK fertilizers from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes. Soil Sci Plant Nutr. 2010;56(4):627–35.
Jan S, Burkhard P, Christian AJWM. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ash with sodium salt additives for phosphorus fertilizer production—analysis of underlying chemical reactions. Waste Manag. 2015;45:385–90.
Vogel C, Krüger O, Adam C. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ash with sodium additives under reducing conditions analyzed by thermogravimetry. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2016;123(2):1045–51.
Steckenmesser D, Vogel C, Adam C, et al. Effect of various types of thermochemical processing of sewage sludges on phosphorus speciation, solubility, and fertilization performance. Waste Manag. 2017;62:194–203.
Acar YB, Alshawabkeh AN. Principles of electrokinetic remediation. Environ Sci Technol. 1993;27:2638–47.
Viader RP, Jensen PE, Ottosen LM, et al. Sequential electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from low-temperature gasification ashes of chemically precipitated sewage sludge. Waste Manag. 2016;60:211–8.
Jakobsen MR, Fritt-Rasmussen J, Nielsen S, et al. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge. J Hazard Mater. 2004;106(2–3):127–32.
Ottosen LM, Jensen PE, Kirkelund GM. Electrodialytic separation of phosphorus and heavy metals from two types of sewage sludge ash. Sep Sci Technol. 2014;49(12):1910–20.
Ottosen LM, Pedersen AJ, Hansen HK, et al. Screening the possibility for removing cadmium and other heavy metals from wastewater sludge and bio-ashes by an electrodialytic method. Electrochim Acta. 2007;52(10):3420–6.
Nystroem GM, Ottosen LM, Villumsen A. Acidification of harbor sediment and removal of heavy metals induced by water splitting in electrodialytic remediation. Sep Sci Technol. 2005;40(11):2245–64.
Ebbers B, Ottosen LM, Jensen PE. Comparison of two different electrodialytic cells for separation of phosphorus and heavy metals from sewage sludge ash. Chemosphere. 2015;125:122–9.
Viader RP, Jensen PE, Ottosen LM, et al. Electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from ash of low-temperature gasification of sewage sludge. Electrochim Acta. 2015;181:100–8.
Guedes P, Mateus EP, Almeida J, et al. Electrodialytic treatment of sewage sludge: current intensity influence on phosphorus recovery and organic contaminants removal. Chem Eng J. 2016;306:1058–66.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51621005) and Key research and development plan of the Yunnan Science and Technology Department (2018IB026). The authors declare no competing financial interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Meng, X., Huang, Q., Xu, J. et al. A review of phosphorus recovery from different thermal treatment products of sewage sludge. Waste Dispos. Sustain. Energy 1, 99–115 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42768-019-00007-x
- Sewage sludge
- Thermal treatment
- Phosphorus recovery