Purpureocillium lilacinum is an entomopathogenic fungus. An experiment was conducted to see the sublethal effects of P. lilacinum on Anastrepha ludens adults. The infection of P. lilacinum reduced daily food consumption per fly ranging from 4.25 ± 0.28 to 6.44 ± 0.27 µl for infected flies, and from 6.30 ± 0.28 to 7.81 ± 0.22 µl for non-infected control flies. The age of treatment in males showed a significant effect on their ability to mate (χ2 = 5.32, P < 0.02). Early stage infection (4 days-old), reduced the male mating propensity significantly (10 ± 0.46 treated to 15.4 ± 0.26 untreated, F 8, 5.94 = 5.592, P < 0.01), compared to later stage (8 days-old) insignificant effect. No effect of fungal infection on an ability of male to inseminate the females was noticed, as fertility of the females mated with infected males was not declined. An inoculated single female (mixture of talc and P. lilacinum) was able to transmit conidia to four groups of 10 males within four days. Males exposed to females on the first day acquired in average 1.7 ⋅ 106, on the second day 1.7 ⋅ 105, on the third day 7.3 × 104 and the fourth day 3.5 ⋅ 104 conidia/ male; which resulted 67.5, 55.0, 20.0, and 7.5 % male mortality, respectively. Our study demonstrated that horizontal transmission through copulation could be used to suppress A. ludens populations.
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We are grateful to Santos Espinosa, Karen Serrano, Oscar Mikery, Jorge Villafuerte, Luis Tort, Marcela Donis, Damaris Cruz, Alehli Martínez, Gonzalo García, Sergio Mejía and Gustavo Rodas for technical assistance. To the Moscafrut program (SENASICA, IICA SADER), for providing the fruit flies. To the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología for scholarship granted to RATH (CONACYT-RATH − 361675).
The research entitled “Effects of Purpureocillium lilacinum (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on food and sexual behavior of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies” was funded by El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This research did not involve human participants. We did use animals (insects, fruit flies) and tried to follow standard protocols used in this type of research. Since no human participants were involved, no informed consent was required.
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Figure S1 Males of Anastrepha ludens marked and unmarked with water paint on the thorax. Figure S2 Items used in evaluation fertility of Anastrepha ludens females. (a) Oviposition device as agar spheres, (b) Micrograph of Anastrepha ludens egg on agar sphere, c and d) Anastrepha ludens eggs arranged on a piece of black cloth placed on a water saturated sponge in a Petri dish. Figure S3 Male and female of Anastrepha ludens with mycoses caused by Purpureocillium lilacinum. (PDF 210 KB)
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Toledo-Hernández, R., Toledo, J., Liedo, P. et al. Effects of Purpureocillium lilacinum (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on food consumption and sexual behavior of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies. Int J Trop Insect Sci (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42690-020-00414-2
- Entomopathogenic fungi
- Sublethal effects
- Horizontal transmission
- Biological control