Table 1 Proximate and ultimate analysis of Endocarp of Buriti (EB), Acai seeds (AcS), Pine bark (PB), Almond shells (AS) and Coconut shell (CS)

From: Green energy technology from buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. f.) for Brazilian agro-extractive communities

Analysis EB (This work) AcS [16] PB [18] AS [19] CS [20]
Moisture (as is) 8.81 15.48 10.10 7.00 3.00
Proximate analysis (wt%, dry basis)
Volatile matter 85.00 79.93 70.18 78.23 77.94
Ash 4.66 1.39 0.95 2.71 0.65
Fixed carbon 10.34 18.68 28.87 19.06 18.06
Ultimate analysis (%)
C 53.30 46.04 55.49 45.64 54.68
H 7.80 6.77 5.56 6.19 7.15
N 1.10 7.99 0.17  < 0.05 0.58
O 36.12 38.38 37.74 45.43 39.12
H/C ratio* 1.74 1.75 1.19 1.62 1.56
O/C ratio* 0.51 0.63 0.51 0.75 0.54
Higher heating value (MJ Kg−1) 18.28 18.14 19.99 20.19
  1. *Molar atomic ratio